Flashcards in Unit 7: Working In A Counselling Relationship Deck (32):
What are the 10 counselling skills that gladding recommends as useful in the understanding and action phases of the counselling process?
Changing perceptions, leading, multi focussed responding, accurate empathy, self-disclosure, immediacy, humor, confrontation, contracting, rehearsal
Seeing things in only one way or from one perspective or being fixated on the idea that this particular situation or attribute is the issue
A technique that offers the client another probable and positive viewpoint or perspective on the situation
Explain the counsellor skill changing perceptions
Counsellors can help clients change distorted or unrealistic objectives by offering them the opportunity to explore thoughts and desires within a safe, accepting, and nonjudgmental environment. By paying attention to both verbal and nonverbal metaphors, counsellors can help clients become more aware of both where they are and where they wish to be.
Perceptions commonly change through the process of reframing, helping the client see another probable and positive viewpoint or perspective on the situation and helps clients become more aware of situational factors associated with behaviour
Changing client perceptions requires a high degree of persuasive skills and some direction from the counselor, such input is known as:
Describe the counsellor skill leading
Input from the counsellor or deliberate behaviours counsellors engage in for the benefit of their clients. Counsellors anticipate where their clients are and where they are likely to go and then respond accordingly. Counsellors are like a good quarterback that anticipates where the receiver will be on the field and throws the ball to that spot
Examples of leads are silence, acceptance, paraphrasing, which are most appropriate at the beginning of the counselling process. Persuasion is more appropriate in the understanding and action phases
Minimal leads-minimal encourages such as hmmm yes or I hear you
Maximum leads-such as confrontation, more challenging and should be employed only after a solid relationship has been established
These type of responses focus on a clients feelings
These responses focus on actions
These responses focus on thought
Describe the counsellor skill of multifocused responding
Counsellors can enhance their effectiveness by remembering that individuals receive input from their worlds differently and that preferred styles influence perceptions and behavior. People have preferences for the way they process information through their senses.
Some experience the world visually: they see what is happening
Some experience the world primarily auditory: they hear the world around them
Others are kinaesthetically oriented: they feel situations as though physically in touch with them
Describe the counsellor scale accurate empathy
Accurate empathy is achieved on both levels of primary empathy and advanced empathy, when counsellor see clients worlds from the clients point of view and are able to communicate this understanding back.
Two factors that make empathy possible are: realizing that an infinite number of feelings does not exist, and having a personal security so that you can let yourself go into the world of this other person and still know that you can return to your own world. Everything you're feeling is "as if"
Accurate primary empathy involves communicating a basic understanding of what the client is feeling and the experiences and behaviours underlying these feelings. It helps establish the counselling relationship, gather data, and clarify problems
Empathy involves three elements: perceptiveness, know-how, and assertiveness
Accurate advanced empathy reflects not only with the client states overtly but also what they imply or state incompletely
A conscious, intentional technique in which clinicians share information about their lives outside the counselling relationship
Describe the counsellor skill disclosure
Making oneself known to another person by revealing personal information can help establish trust and facilitate the counselling relationship. Reciprocal self-disclosure is called the dyadic effect.
Client self-disclosure is necessary for successful counselling to occur, yet it is not always necessary for counsellors to be self disclosing and when it occurs, care must be taken to match disclosure to the clients needs.
Counsellor self disclosure serves to principal functions: modelling and developing a new perspective
Focuses on the here and now and the therapeutic relationship from both the perspective of how the client and counsellor feel. It involves a counsellors and the clients understanding and communicating of what is going on between them in the helping relationship, particularly feelings, impressions, and expectations
Describe the counsellor skill immediacy
There are basically three kinds of immediacy:
1. Overall relationship immediacy-how are you and I doing?
2. Immediacy that focuses on some particular event in a session-what's going on between you and me right now?
3. Self-involving statements, for example, present-tents, personal responses to a client that are sometimes challenging
Immediacy is best used in a directionless relationship, where there is tension, where there is a question of trust, when there is considerable social distance between counsellor and client, where there is client dependency, where there is counter dependency, when there is an attraction between counsellor and client
Involves giving and incongruent or unexpected response to a question or situation that requires both sensitivity and timing on the part of the counsellor
Describe the counsellor skill humour
Should never be aimed at demeaning anyone, but should be used to build bridges between counsellors and clients. It can circumvent clients resistance, build rapport, dispel tension, help clients distance themselves from psychological pain, and aid in the increase of a clients self efficacy
Challenging a client to examine, modify, or control an aspect of behaviour that is currently nonexistent or improperly used. Sometimes involves giving metacommunication feedback that is at variance with what the client wants or expects and this type of response may be inconsistent with the clients perception of self or circumstances
Explain the counselling skill confrontation
Can help people see more clearly what is happening, what the consequences are, and how they can assume responsibility for taking action to change in ways that can lead to a more effective life and better and fairer relationships with others.
Appropriate confrontation produces growth and encourages and honest examination of oneself. It may actually be detrimental to the client if the counsellor fails to confront. Avoiding confrontation of the clients behaviour is known as the MUM effect and results in the counsellor being less effective than he or she otherwise would be
There are two aspects of this counselling skill. One focusses on the processes involved in reaching a goal, the other concentrates on the final outcome. In goalsetting, the counsellor operates from a theoretical base that directs his or her actions. The client learns to change ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving to obtain goals.
Describe the counselling skill contracting
It is useful and time saving for counsellors and clients to work on goals through a contract system which let's both parties participate in determining direction in counselling and evaluating change. It helps them be more specific.
Once a contract is set up, the counsellor can help the client maximize the chance of fulfilling it by getting him or her to ____ or practice designated behaviour
Me also include assigning homework between sessions to help clients practice the skills learned in the counselling sessions and generalize such skills to relevant areas of their lives
Requires the client to verbalize or act out what he or she is going to do
Imagining or reflecting on the desired goal
What is a counselor-client contract? What are the reasons for using a counselor-client contract?
It is working on goals through a contract system. Such a system let's both parties participate in determining direction in counselling and evaluating change and helps them be more specific. It is useful and time saving to use contracts
What are five advantages to using contracts?
1. Provides a written record of goals the counsellor and client have agreed to pursue and the course of action to be taken
2. The formal nature of a contract and its time limits may act as motivators for a client who tends to procrastinate
3. If the contract is broken down into definable sections, a client may get a clear feeling that problems can be solved
4. A contract puts the responsibility for any change on the client and thereby has the potential to empower the client and make him or her more responsive to the environment and more responsible for his or her behaviours
5. The contract system, by specifically outlining the numbers of sessions to be held, ensures that client will return to counselling regularly
When the same ground is covered over and over again in counselling
The clients projection of past or present feelings, attitudes, or desires onto the counsellor
Can be used in 2 ways: help counsellors understand clients better, employed as a way of resolving the clients problems
Refers to the counsellors projected emotional reaction to or behaviour toward the client
This reaction may be a rational, interpersonally stressful, and neurotic emanating from the counsellors own resolved issues. Is often harmful to, threatening, challenging, and/or taxing to the counsellors coping resources
Takes several forms, the most common are: feeling a constant desire to please the client, identifying with the problems of the client so much that one loses objectivity, developing sexual or romantic feelings toward the client, giving advice compulsively, wanting to develop a social relationship with the client
A form of countertransference in which the counsellor loses his or her ability to remain emotionally distant from the client
A form of countertransference in which the counsellor becomes emotionally removed from the client. May express itself in counsellor behaviour that is aloof, non-empathetic, hostile cold or antagonistic