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Flashcards in UWorld- Endo/Biochem Deck (64)
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61

explain the metyrapone stimulation test

metyrapone test is used to determine if the HPA axis is functioning normally or not;
metyrapone inhibits 11-beta-hydroxylase, thereby increasing ACTH stimulation via low cortisol;
if the patient is normal, build up of 11-deoxycortisol (which doesn't inhibit ACTH) will lead to increased 17-hyxdroxycorticosteroids in the urine, which can be measured;
if the patient has abnormal HPA axis function the metyrapone will not elicit increased urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids

62

mononuclear infiltration with germinal centers and a diffusely enlarged thyroid on physical exam is characteristic of what thyroid disease

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

63

what enzyme in the kidney converts 25-hydroxycholecalciferol to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol

1-alpha-hydroxylase

64

from what cells does medullary thyroid carcinoma arise and what does it look like on histology with stain

medullary thyroid carcinoma arises from parafollicular calcitonin-secreting C cells;
on histology medullary thyroid carcinoma appears as polygonal or spindle shaped cells with extracellular amyloid deposits (amyloid stains with Congo red)