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Flashcards in Viral Pathogenesis II Deck (30)
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1

example of viral exanthem

HPV

2

what are some low risk and high risk HPV

low risk - genital warts
high risk - premalignant lesions

3

genome of HPV and what they infect

circular 8kB dsDNA
infect epithelial cells

4

what is Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV)?

rare inherited disorder that exposes pt to widespread HPV infection and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas

5

symptoms from viral disease arise from what

tissue damage or inflammatory responses

6

in the CNS, what does viral infection lead to

most do not cause disease but some can be serious

7

how do you identify the viral agent in CNS viral infections

CSF fluid or biopsy

8

major route for some viruses to spread

sex

don't forget oral and GI are the common site for most viral infections

9

what is of particular concern in STIs

asymptomatic shedding -- so people can unknowingly pass it to their partners because they do not show any symptoms

10

CNS and STI viral examples

HHV-1 and 2

11

what does HHV-1 and 2 share

DNA homology, antigenic determinants, tissue tropism and disease symptoms

12

type of virus that can stay in the body indefinitely

Ubiquitous, large, ds DNA, enveloped icosahedral virus aka HHV-1 and 2

13

importance of the enzymes that HHV-1 and 2 encode

encode enzyme that are good antiviral targets

14

what types of cells do HHV-1 and 2 infect and replicate

mucoepithelial cells

15

resultant phase of HHV-1 and 2 infections

– lytic (most cells: Cowdry type A inclusion bodies, syncytia)
– persistent (lymphocytes and macrophages)
– latent infections (neurons)

16

pathogenesis of HHV-1 and 2

Virus blocks effects of interferon, prevents CD8 T-cell recognition of infected cells, escapes antibody neutralization and clearance by going into “hiding” during latent infection

17

how does recurrence of HHV-1 and 2 occur

in response to various stimuli

18

eyes are another site of viral diseases -- how is it transmitted

direct contact or viremic spread

19

example of viral eye infection

HHV-5 (CMV)

20

most prevalent cause of congenital diseases

HHV-5 (CMV)

21

what is associated with CMV in newborns

chorioretinitis

10% of affected newborns show clinical evidence of disease

22

what are some evidence of CMV in newborns

small size, thrombocytopenia, microcephaly, intracerebral calcification, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and rash

23

examples of viruses transmitted in blood

– Hepatitis B, C, G, D
– HIV
– HTVL-1
– HHV-5 (CMV)
– HHV-4 (EBV)
– West Nile encephalitis virus

24

in hematological diseases of viral infections, lymphocytes and macrophages are targets for what type of viruses

those that establish persistent infections

(transient viral expression of some viruses elicit large T cell responses)

25

some additional modes of transmission for viral diseases

– congenital, neonatal, perinatal infections
– transfusion, transplantation
– arthropods, other animals

26

some properties of chronic viral infections

– immune system has trouble resolving infections
– most DNA viruses and retroviruses cause latent infections 􏰁recurrence

27

some properties of oncogenic viruses

– viruses can carry copies of genes in which altered expression results in loss of growth control
– viruses can modulate the cell’s regulatory factors

28

consequences of viral infections in immunocompromised people

• Atypical and more severe presentation
• Deficient cell-mediated immunity
• Severe T-cell deficiencies
• Immunoglobulin A deficiency or hypogammaglobulinemia

29

what are host cell changes in response to viral infection

cytopathic effects
– Rounding
– Inclusion bodies
– Cell lysis, Necrosis, Apoptosis, etc.
– Syncytia formation
– Transformation

30

difference between visualizing a virus and its effects

you need an electron microscope to see viruses but you can visualize its effects without it