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Flashcards in Principles of Pathogenesis Deck (22)
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1

where in the body are there high and very high numbers of microbes

high - genitals and armpit, small intestine
very high - large intestine and mouth

2

where in the body are there medium numbers of microbes

scalp and stomach

3

where in the body are low numbers of microbes

eyes, shoulder, and forearm?

4

advantages of having a normal microbial population

-they occupy a location blocking microorganisms from coming up so colonization resistance
-production of factors the inhibit or block the growth of other microorganisms
-competitive use of available resources
-low level stimulating the immune system
-produce useful compounds like Vit K and biotin

5

microbiome finding in psoriasis

increased ratio of firmicutes to actinobacteria

6

microbiome finding in obesity

Reduced ratio of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes

7

microbiome finding in childhood onset of asthma

Absence of gastric H. pylori (esp. cytotoxin-associated gene A genotype

8

microbiome finding in inflammatory bowel disease

Larger populations of Enterobacteriaceae

9

areas in the body that are normally sterile

heart, blood, brain, liver

10

what are potential outcomes of host pathogen interaction

inapparent/subclinical
immune clearance
commensalistic relationship (not harming or one is benefiting)
damage

11

symptoms of damage due to host pathogen interaction

host mediated: immunopathogenesis
microbially mediated: toxins, enzymes, physical growth

12

what are some non specific defenses by the body

Eyes
• Washing of tears and Lysozyme
Genitourinary tract
• Washing of urine, Acidity of urine, Lysozyme and (Vaginal lactic acid)
Skin
• Physical barrier and Antimicrobial secretions
Respiratory tract
• Mucus, Ciliated epithelium, and Alveolar macrophages
Digestive tract
• Stomach acidity, Normal flora, and Bile

13

when we have a microbiallly mediated damage -- where is it coming from?

cytolytic effect of replication
degradative enzymes
toxic structures
physical growth through tissues
bacterial toxins: damage host cell membrane, inhibit cellular functions

14

what is the infectious disease process

exposure and entry
adhesion and colonization
invasion and multiplication
spread and dissemination

15

answer for opportunistic and true pathogens: require pre existing host compromise, can infect uncompromised host, exposures are due to accidental exposure

opportunistic: Always, No, Usually

true: No, Yes, Sometimes

16

can true pathogens be opportunistic

yes

17

what population is more susceptible to infection especially really severe infection

very young and very old

18

what is the difference between signs and symptoms

signs - one can directly see and measure
symptoms: what the pt describes that they are feeling

19

what are the stage of an infectious disease

incubation period, acute infection, chronic infection

20

what is incubation period

period of time from acquisition --> signs and symptoms

21

what is incubation period dependent on

microbial and host factors

22

just know that correlation between changes in microbiome and disease does not mean causation

OK