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Flashcards in RT2 Deck (49)
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1

where are most respiratory infections

in the upper respiratory tract

2

viral agents commonly involved in RT infections

1. Adenoviruses
2. Rhinoviruses
3. Coronaviruses
4. HPIV
5. RSV
6. Influenzaviruses
7. Emerging: non- polio picornaviruses

3

viruses than enter through the respiratory but do not exert their pathology in the RT

􏰀Measles (􏰀Both Rubella and Rubeola)
􏰀Chickenpox 􏰀aka Varicella-Zoster 􏰀aka HSV-3
􏰀Smallpox 􏰀Coxsackievirus 􏰀Norwalk Virus

4

upper RT infections

􏰀Sinusitis (most common)
􏰀Rhinitis 􏰀(runny nose aka common cold)
Otolaryngitis 􏰀(nose clogged and scared to talk)
Laryngitis
Pharyngitis

5

lower RT infections

Bronchitis/Bronchiolitis 􏰀
Pneumonias

6

types of pneumonias

CAPs (Community- Acquired Pneumonia)(exogenous)
[Acute CAPs 􏰀Subacute/Chronic]

􏰀Nosocomial 􏰀Usually acute (hospital acquired and deadly)

7

why is mucus elevator more important in lower RT

in URT gravity pushes the mucus down so not needed

8

sinusitis and otitis media have mainly what potential etiologic agent

bacterial

9

microbial causes of rhinitis

viral agents: rhinovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus, non-polio picornavirus

no significant bacterial agents

10

clinical syndrome of rhinitis

symptoms of common cold which include:
•Runny or stuffy nose
•Itchy or sore throat
•Cough
•Congestion
•Slight body aches or a mild headache •Sneezing
•Watery eyes
•Low-grade fever
•Mild fatigue

11

what does a person get in most viral agents that they do not get in rhinitis

high fever (low grade in rhinitis)
or high/significant fatigue

12

many cases of rhinitis are due to what?

allergies rather than infection

13

what happens to nasal discharge as the common cold runs its course

it becomes thicker and yellow or green in color

14

rhinovirus is from what viral family

picornavirus

15

describe physical features of rhinovirus (picornavirus)

small, +ssRNA, icosahedral, non enveloped virus

16

what are features of rhinovirus that contributes to its pathogenicity

relatively stable in the environment, non enveloped, opt temp of growth at 33-35oC, antigenic drift

17

how do the features of rhinovirus help with its pathogenicity

stable in environment: enables transmission
non enveloped: less sensitive to surface cleaners like alcohols and disinfectants
opt temp of 33-35: ideal for URT infection
antigenic drift: high number of viral serotype (greater than 153)

18

sole known reservoir of rhinovirus

humans

19

who is susceptible to rhinovirus

all ages: more severe in younger children because they haven't built immunity against it

20

transmission and survival time of rhinovirus

transmission - breathing on one another, droplets, formites, sneezing

survival time: 2 hours to a week

21

what happens to most people infected with enterovirus

they do not get sick or they get mild illness

22

what are symptoms of those who develop mild illness from enterovirus

fever, runny nose, sneezing, cough, skin rash, mouth blisters, body and muscle aches

23

clinical syndrome of adenovirus

pharyngitis (sore throat), conjunctivitis (inflammation of conjuctiva of eye)

24

significant about the structure of adenovirus

icosahedral and there are fibers at the end of each penton

25

how are adenovirus placed into groups and haemagglutination group

group based on their fiber length and DNA homology (A, B, C)

haemagglutination group based on their capability to agglutinate erythrocytes (I, II, III, IV)

26

how many serotypes do adenovirus have?

a hell of a lot

27

what do the adenovirus component do once it gets into the cell

it hijacks the cell and interferes with the host immune response then takes over the cell in order for the host to make more adenovirus

28

adenovirus pathogenicity

fiber protein at the end of the penton enables attachment to host cell receptor which varies with viral serotype

29

what is the receptor for serotype 2 and 5 for adenovirus

CAR = Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor

30

where does the toxic activity of adenovirus come from

penton base