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Flashcards in Immunopathology of Infectious Diseases Deck (45)
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what is the first line of defense of the immune system?

physical barriers called Innate Immunity


What is the second line of defense of the immune system?

chemical barriers, protective cells and fluids and it inflammatory response also called innate immunity
(Inflammasone as inflammation promotor and regulator)


What is the third line of defense of the immune response?

Specific immunity or adaptive immunity


What are features of acquired immune response?

Discriminates between self and non self
Has memory
Exhibits self tolerance
Appropriate (respond to the invader at hand)
Success depends on the immuno competancy and repertorie of Ag found in the genes of the individual


Failure of the innate system can result in what?



Invaders must breach the innate barriers and be immunogenic to evoke what?

An adaptive immune response


What are the immune response-cooperative effector mechanisms??

1. Complement
--classical pathway: IgM and IgG = cell lysis and opsonization
--alternative (properdin) pathway
--IgM and IgG with complement
--Lectin Pathway
2. Phagocytosis enhanced by opsonins
3. Increased aggressive behavior of cellular immunity (CMI)


In the lectin pathway of the complement system, mannose binding protein binds to non reduced mannose, fucose and glucosamine working to activate complement through what ?

C3 convertase


What two complement factors are for inflammation?

C3a and C5a


What complement factor is for opsonization?



Complement levels in circulation can be used as what?

As a diagnostic feature of disease process


The alternate pathway of the complement system is what?

Activated by bacterial cell surfaces, components (endotoxin, microbial polysacharrides, Aggregated IgA


What are the clinical stages of infection?

1. Aborted infection, no immune reaction
2. Prodromal
3. Inapparent infection (no overt symptoms or signs) (immune response may be observed)
4. Sub Clinical infections (mild symptoms or signs) and (maliase not feeling good but does not go to a physician)
5. Clinical infection, presents to clinician for diagnosis and possible treatment
6. Clinical infection: fulminating, acute, subacute, chronic, inapparent


Bacteria cause disease by what?

Toxin production, invasion or both


Viruses cause pathogenesis by alteration of what?

alteration of cell function or structure, destruction of cell or both


The immune response to invasion (lag time) consists of what?

1. Destruction or elimination of invader
2. Protection from infection
3. Lack of an immune response
4. abnormal response with subsequent pathology


Why does the immune system fail to detect non-self in microbial populations?

Micropopulations also have strategies!
-Concealment, Antigenic variations, immunosuppresion, minicry, molecular mimicry, tolerization, gaps in host's immune repertoire, and upsetting the balance between antibody and Th1 and Th2 responses


What are some additional microbial strategies for reasons why the immune system fails to detect microbial populations

-Temporary immunosuppression by some viruses
-Some microbial toxins are immunomodulators
-Some microbes interfere with cell signaling between immune cells with cytotoxic T cells or with host responses
-Some microbes interfere with local expression of immune response in the tissue


What are some immune disorders a result of?

Immune Disorders
-Immunosuppression (latrogenic or organic)
-Inappropriate response (genetic or exposure)
-Failure to clear in the infectious disease agent
-Failure to recognize self
-autoimmune diseases


What are immunodeficiencies result of?

Immunodeficiency may result from:
-genetic deficiencies
-drug-induced immunosupression (steroid tx and cancer chemo)
-Chemotherapeutic (suppression of tissue graft rejection)
-cancer (Esp of immune cells)
-disease (HIV/AIDS)


Immunopathology and infectious diseases refers to what?

Damage to host cells by the effector systems of the immune response resulting from microbially-induced specific and non specific immune responses


Immune response can be protective under some conditions, damaging under others. What are some circumstances this statement can apply to?

-lack of an immune response
-excessive/unlimited/uncontrolled -->damage


What is an acute phase protein?

C-reactive protein (CRP)


CRP is an acute phase protein produced by what? and during what?

produced by liver during inflammatory response


If the CRP in a patient is increased, what would this be due to?

Rise is due to a rise in the plasma concentration of IL-6, which is produced in macrophages, endothelial cells and T -cells


CRP blood test: if low risk what is the range and if high risk what is the range?

Low risk is less than 1mg/L
high risk is greater than 3mg/L


Patients with an elevated basal levels of CRP are at an increased risk for what diseases?

diabetes, HTN or cardiovascular disease


CRP receptor is located on what cell?



What are lifestyle changes that a patient can do to reduce their CRP?

Exercise, lose weight, STOP SMOKING, flaxseed, aspirin, niacin, statins and clean teeth


What syndrome is associated with increased CRP?

Metabolic Syndrome (Syndrome X)