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Flashcards in Parasitology Deck (25)
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1

difference between autochthonous vs. imported

autochthonous - native to the place where found

imported - not normally native to the place where found

2

features of macroepidemiology

• Morbidity
• Mortality
• Prevalence (age \ sex)
• Intensity
• Economic impact

3

features of microepidemiology

Internal
• Immunity
• Nutritional status
• Genetic susceptibility

External
• Human behavior
• Breed/use of dog
• Environment

4

percentage of people in hospital beds that have water related diseases

50%

5

difference between endophilic, anthrophilic, and zoonophilic

endophilic - feed indoors
anthrophilic - feed on humans
zoonophilic - feed on animals

6

what is polyparasitism

person being infected with multiple parasites at a time

7

difference between indirect and direct horizontal transmission

direct: infected host --> susceptible host (basically human to human)

indirect: infected host --> susceptible vector/intermediate host --> susceptible host

8

what is vertical transmission

infected mother to uninfected offspring by trans-placental or trans-mammary

9

what does PPP stand for

prepatent period: period between infection of an individual by parasite and the first ability to detect in that individual the parasite

10

what are the hosts for Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomiasis)

armadillo, possum, agouti, humans

11

intermediate host for trypanosoma cruzi

reduviid (kissing, cone-nosed) but [triatomid]

12

transmission of trypanosoma cruzi

-horizontal bite by reduviid bug take blood meal near mouth or eyes of a host at NIGHT

-defecates after feeding and expels parasite in feces which is taken in through mucus membranes or wound

13

lifecycle of trypanosoma cruzi

trypomastigotes: bloodstream and plasma

become amastigotes: inside muscle or nerve cells esp myocardium or myenteric plexus of gut where it multiplies

14

symptoms of trypanosoma cruzi

-chagoma/ romana's sign (looks like eyes are swollen shut) which is uniocular and lasts for few months
-cardiomegaly
-apical aneurysm
-megacolon
-megaesophagus

15

control of trypanosoma cruzi

no vaccine
education
insecticide-treated nets at night

16

another name for African Trypanosomiasis and two types of trypanosomiasis

AKA sleeping sickness
trypanosoma b. rhodesiense
trypanosoma b. gambiense

17

Which strand of african trypanosomiasis is in West Africa? What is its host and intermediate host?

trypanosoma b. gambiense
host: pigs (reservoir host)
intermediate host: tsetse fly

18

which strand of African Trypsanosomiasis is in East Africa? What is its host and intermediate host?

trypanosoma b. rhodesiense
host: wildlife
intermdiate host: tsetse fly

19

transmission of trypanosomiasis

painful bite during the day (diurnal)

20

symptoms of trypanosomiasis

intermittent fever, becoming progressively weaker, anemia, sleeping a lot, coma

21

lifecycle of trypanosomiasis

trypomastigoes occur in RBC, lymphatics, and CSF
no tissue amastigote stage

22

host and intermediate host of leishmaniasis

host: sloths/rodents
intermediate host: sandflies do not need water to breed

23

transmission of leishmaniasis

sandflies take up AMASTIGOTES in WBC which then converted to PROMASTIGOTE in its gut then transmitted via SALIVARY GLANDS to the animal

24

how is malaria transmitted

mosquito

25

amount of people affected annually by malaria and amount of those who die from it

200-500 million with 0.6 - 3 million dying