Flashcards in Week 1 - Anatomical & Radiological Terminology Deck (20):
(cranial, rostral, cephalic) - toward head or upper part of structure
(caudal) away from head or toward the lower part of the structure
father from the midline of the body of structure
nearer to the attachment of an extremity (limb) to the truck or a structure; nearer to the point of origin
farther from the attachment of an extremity (limb) to the trunk or structure; farther from the point of origin
body or structure lies anterior side up
(pronation) body or structure lies anterior side down
cuts body into left and right halves/sides - vertical plane that divides
vertical plane that passes through the midline and divides the body into equal right and left halves
vertical plane that divides the body into unequal right and left halves
(Frontal) - vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
(transverse/axial plane) a plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Which structures are radio-lucent?
Air filled structures (air has atoms far apart) such as STOMACH and COLON
Which structures are radio-opaque?
Bone - with its crystalline arrangement of calcium and phosphorus
The X-ray image is less distorted for the portion of the body. . .
closer to the X-ray detector
Involves directing a beam of X-rays at a specific body part and detecting the radiation that emerges at the opposite surface - ability of substance to absorb or scatter X-rays varies with density of object
-Body fluids (blood) and tissues have a similar density with fat slightly more lucent
-Always take images from two different directions - sometimes contrast media is used to make structures more visible!
Computer assisted tomography (CT)
Multiple X rays rapidly done, computer analyzes detectors response and produces an image in a given plane, more details than X rays but also more harmful
-USE SHOULD BE MINIMAL - CT of chest = 150 chest X-rays
-High frequency sound waves (sonar) are differentially reflected by surfaces separating structures of different densities
-Free from damaging effects - imp. during pregnancy; can be performed at the bedside
-Images are more difficult to interpret
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
-Uses magnetic fields to produce images - patient is placed in powerful magnetic field and pulsed with radiofrequency waves that cause nuclei of atoms to emit a radiosignal that can be detected, stored and with the aid of a computer, reproduced as an image
-Produces better soft tissue images than CTs
-EXPENSIVE, issues with claustrophobia, patients with metal in their bodies