Week 1 - Anatomical & Radiological Terminology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 1 - Anatomical & Radiological Terminology Deck (20):
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Superior

(cranial, rostral, cephalic) - toward head or upper part of structure

1

Inferior

(caudal) away from head or toward the lower part of the structure

2

Lateral

father from the midline of the body of structure

3

Proximal

nearer to the attachment of an extremity (limb) to the truck or a structure; nearer to the point of origin

4

Distal

farther from the attachment of an extremity (limb) to the trunk or structure; farther from the point of origin

5

Supine

body or structure lies anterior side up

6

Prone

(pronation) body or structure lies anterior side down

7

Sagittal plane

cuts body into left and right halves/sides - vertical plane that divides

8

Midsagittal plane

vertical plane that passes through the midline and divides the body into equal right and left halves

9

Parasagittal plane

vertical plane that divides the body into unequal right and left halves

10

Coronal plane

(Frontal) - vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions

11

Horizontal plane

(transverse/axial plane) a plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions

12

Which structures are radio-lucent?

Air filled structures (air has atoms far apart) such as STOMACH and COLON

13

Which structures are radio-opaque?

Bone - with its crystalline arrangement of calcium and phosphorus

14

The X-ray image is less distorted for the portion of the body. . .

closer to the X-ray detector

15

Conventional Radiography

Involves directing a beam of X-rays at a specific body part and detecting the radiation that emerges at the opposite surface - ability of substance to absorb or scatter X-rays varies with density of object
-Body fluids (blood) and tissues have a similar density with fat slightly more lucent
-Always take images from two different directions - sometimes contrast media is used to make structures more visible!

16

Computer assisted tomography (CT)

Multiple X rays rapidly done, computer analyzes detectors response and produces an image in a given plane, more details than X rays but also more harmful
-USE SHOULD BE MINIMAL - CT of chest = 150 chest X-rays

17

Ultrasonography

-High frequency sound waves (sonar) are differentially reflected by surfaces separating structures of different densities
-Free from damaging effects - imp. during pregnancy; can be performed at the bedside
-Images are more difficult to interpret

18

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

-Uses magnetic fields to produce images - patient is placed in powerful magnetic field and pulsed with radiofrequency waves that cause nuclei of atoms to emit a radiosignal that can be detected, stored and with the aid of a computer, reproduced as an image
-Produces better soft tissue images than CTs
-EXPENSIVE, issues with claustrophobia, patients with metal in their bodies

19

Nuclear Medicine Imaging

1. Radioactive material injected and taken-up selectively by different body organs
2. Used to evaluate the physiological function of an organ or structure