Flashcards in Week 3 - Upper Extremity Diagnostic Skills Session Deck (23):
What is the drop-arm test and what does it look for?
Abduct the arm to 90 degrees and slowly lower it - if rotator cuff tear, hand will drop at 90 and cannot be held there.
This checks for a large rotator cuff tear
What muscle does external rotation (rotating forearms out) test?
Infraspinatus & Teres minor
What is the empty can test and what muscle does it test?
-Put arms up to 90 (or 45) degrees, rotate internally with thumbs down - physician applies downward force as patient holds and feels for pain
What is the lift off test and what muscle does it test?
-Placing hands on back and lifting up palms
What does cross-body adduction test?
Acromioclavicular joint OA (osteoarthritis) or chronic sprain
What does the apprehension sign/relocation test test?
What are the impingement tests?
Neers- straight arm, hold shoulder, lift up past 180 (posterior side up) - long head of biceps brachii or rotator cuff muscle group impingement
Hawkins- Hold arm at 90 at elbow and rotate forearm down - palm facing patient's face - long head of biceps brachii tendon or rotator cuff muscle group impingement
Hold your forearm out with palms up and push up. What muscles does this test?
What is Obrien's test? What does it test?
Put patient's arm out, 15 degrees toward midline, twist arm inward (thumb pointing down) - Physician pushes down and patient resists - should also do test on other side of arm (palms up) - If pain or clicking in glenohumoral joint - may indicate labril teal or slap lesion
What is the crank test?
It is rotating the forearm with the elbow bent - physician is pushing in a little toward glenohumeral joint - arm is rotated up and down (180 degrees) - looking for pain or clicking
What is the apprehension-relocation test and what does it test?
-Tests for glenohumeral joint stability
-Patient can stand or sit
-Hold one hand on patient shoulder
-Lift the patient arm to 90, externally rotate humerus/forearm
-Positive test = apprehension on patient's face
-Relocation test - applying pressure to humeral joint after positive test and seeing patient's relief
What is lateral epicondylitis?
-Tennis elbow, entrapment of the medial nerve
What is medial epicondylitis?
Golf elbow, impingement of the ulnar nerve - numbness in 4th and 5th fingers
What is ulnar neuropathy?
Ulnar nerve entrapment - numbness, tingling in the 4th and 5th digits
How do you find the olecranon bursa?
Palpate the posterior elbow
What does medial nerve entrapment cause?
Discomfort, numbness, tingling in thumb, 2nd & 3rd fingers
What are scaffoid fractures and in what population are they common?
They are common in teens and its the fracture of the bone closest to the anatomical snuff box. Causes pain in the anatomical snuffbox.
What is De Quervain Tenosynovitis?
It's not uncommon for a mother who's constantly picking up children. It's caused by repetitive motion.
-Usually it's pain on top of thumb
Finkelstein test- patient flexes thumb across palm and fingers are then wrapped around thumb. Then patient is asked to deviate the wrist toward the ulnar styloid - pain will exhibit over radial styloid
What does the Finkelstein test look for?
De Quervain Tenosynovitis
What is the phalen test?
Hold backs of hands together for 30 seconds and see if the patient notices numbness, tingling or pain in median nerve distribution - tests for carpal tunnel
What is the thenar test?
Tapping from distal to proximal wrist/palm, looking for pain, tingling, numbness associated with carpal tunnel.
What happens in medial and lateral epicondylitis?
Muscle and tendon units around elbow end up getting enflamed - usually from overuse