Flashcards in Week 10 Deck (65):
Whatis a group?
Two or more people who share a common definition and evaluation of themselves and behave in accordance with such a definition.
What is group polarisation?
Tendency of a group discussions to produce more extreme groups decisions that the means of members prediscussion opinions, in direction favoured by the mean.
What is group think?
A mode of thinking in highly cohesive groups in which the desire to reach unanimous agreement overrides the motivation to adopt proper rational decision-making procedures.
What does group membership often entail?
Group membership often entails shared goals, interdependence, mutual influence and face to face interaction.
What kind of structures are groups?
Do groups change over time?
What is one example of how groups may change over time?
We see new members join and old members leave.
Is there a difference between a group and a social aggregate?
What is an example of a group?
The women's cricket team.
What is an example of a social aggregate?
People sitting in a cinema.
What do groups have to have?
Groups have to have:
• Individuals interacting with one another
• Perception of belonging to a group
• Join together to achieve a goal
• Satisfy a need through joint association
• Structured interactions by roles and norms
• Influence each other
Why may people join or form groups?
• Get things done
• Sense of identity
• Social support
• Social interaction
What is brainstorming?
Brainstorming is uninhibited generation of as many ideas as possible in a group, in order to enhance group creativity.
What is inferior results in brainstorming explained by?
• Evaluation apprenshion
• Social loafing and free riding
• Production matching
• Production blocking
What is being excluded from a group?
Aversive and can be painful, even leading to a feelings of being utterly worthless.
What is entitavity?
Entitativity is the property of a group that makes it seem like a coherent, distinct and unitary entity.
What is group socialisation?
This is a dynamic relationship between the group and its members that describes the passage of members through a group in terms of commitment and changing roles.
How long do groups last?
Some groups last for centuries but some last for minutes, hours or days.
What are three basic processes of group?
Evaluation, commitment and role transition.
What is evaluation in a group?
Ongoing evaluation of the members of the past, presence and future rewards of the group. We evaluate group in terms of alternative groups available.
What is commitment in a group?
Each individual’s commitment to group.
What is role transition in a group?
Going from being an individual to a member of the group.
What is one aspect of role transition in a group?
Are all initiation rites public and formal?
What is group structure?
Roles, status and communication.
What are roles?
Patterns of behaviour that distinguish between different activities within the group, and interrelate for one another for the greater good of the group.
What is a status?
A consensual evaluation of prestige of a role or role occupant in a group of the prestige of a group and its members as a whole.
What are the three levels of status in a group?
Status of the role, status of the person in the role and status of the group.
What are communication networks in groups?
Set of rules governing the possibility or ease of communication between different roles in groups.
What are the five stages of Tuckman's five-stage developmental sequence?
Forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
What is the forming stage of the Tuckman five-stage developmental sequence?
Orientation and familiarisation. This happens when the group definitely starts.
What is the storming stage of the Tuckman five stage developmental sequence?
Conflict stage, people need to work through disagreement.
What is the norming stage of the Tuckman five stage developmental sequence?
Search for shared identity and purpose.
What is the performing stage of the Tuckman five stage developmental sequence?
When the group is working smoothly as a unit.
What is the adjourning stage of the Tuckman five stage developmental sequence?
When the group ends.
What is group cohesiveness?
This is the property of a group that affectively binds people, as group members, to one another and to the group as a whole, giving the group a sense of solidarity and oneness.
Why is group cohesiveness a variable property?
It differs between groups, between contexts and across time.
What are norms?
They are attitudinal and behavioural uniformities that defined group membership and differentiate between groups.
How do groups develop norms?
In order to regulate behaviour.
What are the components of norms?
o shared beliefs
o capture attributes that describe the group
o descriptive or prescriptive
o explicit or implicit
o specify a limited range of acceptable behaviour
What is social facilitation?
Social Facilitation is an improvement in the performance of well learned easy tasked and a detioration in the performance of poorly learned difficult tasks in the mere presence of members of the same species.
What is mere presence?
Mere presence refers to an entirely passive and unresponsive audience that is only physically present.
What are social decision schemas?
Social decision schemas are explicit or implicit decision making rules that relate individual opinions to final group decision.
What are five methods of group decision making?
• Majority wins
• Truth wins
• Two thirds majority
• First shift
What is the Lippitt and White theory of leaders?
Distinguishes between three types of leaders.
What are the three types of leaders according to Lippitt and White?
Autocratic leaders, democratic leader and laissez faire leaders.
What are autocratic leaders?
Leaders who use a style based on giving orders to followers.
What are democratic leaders?
Leaders who use a style based on consultation and obtaining agreement and consent from followers.
What are laissez faire leaders?
Leaders who use a style based on disinterest in followers.
What are the two leadership points under the ohio state leadership studies?
Initiating structure and consideration.
What is the initiating structure part of the ohio state leadership study?
This is task orientated.
What is the consideration part of the ohio state leadership study?
This is relationship-orientated.
What are audience effects?
Audience effects is the impact of others on an individual’s task performance.
What is a leader?
Leader is getting group members to achieve the groups’ goals.
What is social compensation?
This is the increased effort on a collective task to compensate for other group’s members actual, perceived or anticipated lack of effect or ability.
What is social loafing?
Social loafing is a reduction in individual effort when working on a colkective task compared with working either alone or coactively.
What are three explanations of social loafing?
o output equity
o evaluation apprehension
o matching to standard
How does a social lofer differ from a free rider?
A social loafer does something while a free rider does nothing at all.
What is the free-rider effect?
Gaining the benefits of group membership by avoiding costly obligations of group membership and by allowing other members to incur those costs.
What are three theories of social facilitation?
Drive theory, evaluation apprenshion model and distraction conflict theory.
What is drive theory?
This is Zajonc’s theory that the physical presence of members of the same species instively causes arousal that motivates performance of habitual behaviour patterns.
What is the distraction conflict theory?
the physical presence of members of the same species causes drive because people are distracting and produce conflict between attending to the task and attending to the audience. This model was by baron and his colleges.
Who did the distraction conflict theory?
baron and his colleagues.
What is the evaluation apprehension model?
The argument that the physical presence of members of the same species causes drive because people have learned to be apprenhensive about being evaluated.