Flashcards in Week 7 Deck (66):
What is attribution?
Attribution is the process of assigning a cause to our own behaviour and that of others.
What are conspiracy theories?
Conspiracy theory is an explanation of widespread, complex and worrying events in terms of the premeditated actions of small groups of highly organised conspirators.
What is a naive psychologist?
Naïve psychologists is a model of cognition that characterizes people as using rational, scientific like, cause-effect analyses to understand their world.
Native psychologist theory is by Heider.
What are people as naive psychologists trying to do?
Seeking to understand the causes of their own and other people’s behaviour.
What are the three principles of naive psychologist theory?
o discover other people’s motives
o focus on stable and enduring properties
o distinguish between factors
What are the two factors to distinguish between in the naive psychologist model?
Internal attribution and external attribution.
What is internal attribution?
Internal attribution is the process of assigning the cause of our own or others’ behaviour to internal or dispositional factors.
What is external attribution?
External attribution is assigning the cause of our own or other’s behaviour to external or environmental factors.
What is Jones's and Davis's theory about?
What is correspondence inference?
Correspondence inference is causal attribution of behaviour to underlying dispositions.
According to correspondence inference, what is a dispositional cause?
:A dispositional cause is a stable one and a predictable attribution leads to a sense of control.
According to Jone's and Davis' theories, what are the five sources of information?
freely choosen, non common effect, socially desirable behaviour, hedonic relevance and personalism.
According to Jones's and Davis theories, why is freely choosen a source of information?
Freely chosen is more indicative of a disposition than behaviour that is clearly under the control of external threats, inducements and constraints.
According to Jone's and Davis's theories, why is personalism a source of information?
Personalism is that behaviour that appears to be directly intended to benefit or harm oneself rather than others.
According to Jones's and Davis theories, what is hedonic relevance?
Hedonic relevance refers to behaviour that has important direct consequences for self.
According to Jones' and Davis theories, what does socially desirable behaviour?
Socially desirable behaviour tells us little about a person’s disposition because it is likely to be influenced by social norms.
According to Jones's and Davis theories, what do non common effects tell us as a source of information?
Behaviours with effects that are relatively exclusive to that behaviour rather than common to a range of other behaviours tell us more about social dispositions.
Are people good scientists when it comes to make attributions?
Why are people poor scienticists when making attributions?
A tendency to attribute others’ behaviour dispositionally and their own behaviour externally and a tendency to protect the self concept by externally attributing their own failures and internally attributing their successes.
What is covariation model?
Covariation model is theory of causal attribution-people assign the cause of behaviour to the factor that covaries most closely with the behaviour. The three pieces of information with use:
What are the three pieces of information used in the covariation model?
Consistency information, distinctiveness information and consensus information.
What is a causal schemeta?
Causal schemata is that experience based beliefs about how certain types of cause interact to produce an effect.
What is discount?
Discount is that if there is no consistent relationship between a specific cause and a specific behaviour, that cause is discounted in favour of some other cause.
What is consistency information?
Consistency information is information about the extent to which a behaviour Y always co-occurs with a stimulus X.
What is distinctiveness information?
Distinctiveness information is that information about whether a person’s reaction occurs only with one stimulus, or is a common reaction to many stimulus.
What is consensus information?
Consensus information is that information about the extent to which other people react in the same way to a stimulus X.
What do attributions we make have a profound affect on?
The attributions that we make can have a profound effect on our emotions, self concept and relationships with others. There may be individual differences in propensities to make internal or external attributions.
Are there individual differences in the decision to make internal or external attributions?
How do we use attributions to explain our emotion?
This is done through Schater’s theory of emotional liability.
What is Schater's theory of emotional liability?
This is a state of arousal may occur that promopts a search of the immediate environment for possible causes.
What is an example of Schater's theory of emotional liability?
For example, if you are scared you may think it is because you just saw a snake.
What are causal schemata shaped by?
• Nature of information available
• Wider, socially constructed belief systems.
How do we use attributions for own our behaviour?
Self perception theory.
What is self perception theory?
Bem’s idea that we gain knowledge of ourselves only by making self attribution.
How do we use attributions to explain that acts are stable and controlled?
Weiner’s attributional theory looks at achievement attributions based from.
What is Weiner's attributional theory about?
What are the three points of Weiner's attributional theory?
Locus, stability and controlability.
What is locus according to Weiner's attributional theory?
Locus is making an internal and external attributions on controls.
What is stability according to Weiner's attributional theory?
what attribution stable
What is controllability according to Weiner's attributional theory?
Whether future performance is under control.
What are non common effects?
Non common effects are effects that are relatively exclusive to that behaviour rather than other behaviours.
What is attributional style?
Attributional style is that an individual predisposition to make a certain type of causal attribution for behaviour.
What is cognitive miser?
Cognitive miser is a model of social cognition that characterizes people as using the least complex and demanding cognitions that are generally adaptive behaviours.
What are two biases in intergroup attribution?
o ultimate attribution error
What are attributions for behaviours of ingroup and outgroup members?
Ethnocentric and based on stereotypes.
What is ethnocentrism?
Etnocentrism is that evaluative preference for all aspects of our own group relative to other groups.
What is ultimate attribution error?
Ultimate attribution error is that there is a tendency to attribute bad outgroup behaviour and good ingroup behaviour internally and to attribute good outgroup behaviour and bad ingroup behaviour externally.
What are six biases in attribution?
• correspondence bias (or fundamental attribution error)
• outcome bias
• the actor-observer effect
• the false consensus effect
• self-serving bias
What is correspondence bias?
Correspondence bias is a general attribution bias in which people have an inflated tendency to see behaviour as reflecting stable underlying personality attributes.
What is fundamental attribution errors?
Fundamental attribution error is bias in attributing another’s behaviour to internal than to situational cues.
What is the false consenus effect?
The false consensus effect is that seeing our own behaviour as being more typical than it really is.
What is the actor observer effect?
The actor observer effect is the tendency to attribute our own behaviours externally and others behaviours internally.
What is essentialism?
Essentialism is pervasive tendency to consider behaviour to reflect underlying and immutable, often innate, properties of people or the group they belong to.
What does essentialism reinforce?
What is outcome bias?
Outcome bias is you attribute greater attribution to someone if there is a larger error than a smaller bias.
What is the motivated tactican?
The motivation tactican is a model of social cognition that characterises people as having multiple cognitive strategies available, from which they choose on the basis of personal goals, motives and needs.
What are the three self serving biases?
Self handicapping, illusion of control and belief in a just world.
What are self serving biases?
Attributional distortions that protector enhance self esteem or the self concept.
What is self handicapping?
Self handicapping is publicly making advance external attributions for our anticipated failure or poor performance in a forthcoming event.
What is illusion of control?
Illusion of control is that belief that we have more control over our world than we really do.
What is an example of illusion of control?
Blaming yourself for being raped.
What is belief in a just world?
Belief in a just world is belief that the world is a just and predictable place where good things happen to good people and bad things to bad people.
What are ingroup attribution?
Integroup attributions is the process of assigning the cause of one’s own or others’ behaviour to group membership.
Why do people resort to causal attributions?
People resort to causal attributions only when there is no readily available social knowledge to explain things automatically.
What are social representations?
Social representations are collectively elaborated explanations of unfamiliar and complex phenomena that transform them into a familiar and simple form. It is a consensual understanding among group members.