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Flashcards in Week 13 Deck (53):

What is prosocial behaviour?

Prosocial behaviour are acts that are positively valued by society.


When we think of prosocial behaviour, what do we usually think of?

We usually think of things that are positive and voluntary and natured. Prosocial behaviour is culturall defined.


Is prosocial behaviour culturally defined?



What does prosocial behaviour include?

Helping behaviour.


What is one form of helping behaviour?



What is helping behaviour?

Helping behaviour are acts that intentionally benefit someone else.


What is altruism?

Altruism is a special form of helping behaviour, sometimes costly, that shows concern for fellow human beings and is performed without expectation of personal gain.


Why do some people think there is no such idea as altruism?

Some people think there is no such idea as altruism because some people believe that if a person was to feel guilty for not helping.


Why is it difficult to identify purely altrusic behaviour?

It is difficult to identify purely altruistic behaviour because motives or rewards may not be observable.


What was the Kitty Genovese murder?

The Kitty Genovese murder stimulated and heavily influenced the entire field of understanding prosocial behaviour in humans, and research into bystander intervention specifically.


What murder launched investigation into prosocial behaviour?

Kitty Genovese.


What is the nature nurture controversy?

Nature nurture controversy is that classic debate about whether genetic or environmental factors determine human behaviour.


What do scienticists generally accept about the nature nurture controversy and prosocial behaviour?

It is an interaction of both.


How does biology and evolution explain prosocial behaviour?

Through evolutionary psychology.


What is evolutionary social psychology?

An extension of evolutionary psychology that views complex social behaviour as adapative, helping the individual, kin and the species as a whole to survive.


What are two examples of evolutionary social psychology assisting prosocial behaviour?

Mutualism and kin selection.


Why does evolutionary social psychology explain pro social behaviour?

This is because we are biologically predisposed. We a biologically predisposed to give helping behaviour.


What is mutualism?

Mutualism is the idea of reciprocity.


What is kin selection?

Kin selection is people are biased towards helping family members so the blood line continues.


What is the empathy and arousal model of prosocial behaviour?

This is a state of arousal needed before we act prosocially.


What arousal is needed in the empathy and arousal model of prosocial behaviour?



What is the commons dilema?

Commons dilemma is a social dilemma in which cooperation by all benefits all but competition by all harms all.


What is empathy?

Empathy is the ability to feel another person’s emotions, thoughts and attitudes.


What are the two norms for helping?

Reciprocity principle and social responsibility norm.


What is the reciprocity principle?

The law of doing unto others as they do to you.


What is the social responsibility norm?

The idea that we should help people who are dependent and in need. It is contradicted by another norm that discourages interfering in other people’s lives.


What can the reciprocity principle refer to?

It can refer to an attempt to gain compliance by first doing someone a favour, or to mutual aggression or mutual attraction.


What is the bystander calculus model?

Bystander calculus model is that in attending an emergency, the bystander calculates the perceived costs and benefits of providing help compared with those associated with not helping.


What are the three components of the bystander calculus model?

1) Physiological arousal
2) Naming the arousal
3) Evaluating the consequences


What are empathy costs?

Empathy costs of not helping is Pilavin’s view that failing to help can cause distress to a bystander who emphasizes with a victim’s plight.


What are personal costs?

Personal costs of not helping a victim in distress can be costly to a bystander.


What is empathetic concern?

Empathetic concern is an element in Batson’s theory of helping behaviour. In contrast to personal distress (which may lead us to flee from the situation) it includes feelings of warmth, being soft hearted and having a compassion for a person in need.


What is modelling?

Modelling is a tendency for a person to reproduce the actions, attitudes and emotional responses exhibited by a real life or symbolic model.


What is the social learning theory?

Social learning theory us the view championed by Bandura that human social behaviour is not innate but learned from appropriate models.


What is learning by vicarious experience?

Learning by vicarious experience is that acquiring a behaviour after observing that another person was rewarded for it.


What is the just world hypothesis?

Just world hypothesis is that according to Lerner and Miller, people need to believe that the world is a just place where they get what they deserve.


What is evidence of the just world hypothesis?

As evidence of under deserved suffering undermines this belief, people may conclude that victims deserve their fate.


What is the bystander intervention?

The bystander intervention is that this occurs when an individual breaks out the role of a bystander and helps another person in an emergency.


Are situational factors important determinants in the contexts of emrgencies?



What is the bystander effect?

Bystander effect is that people are less likely to help in an emergency when they are with others than when alone.


What is an example of the bystander effect?

The greater the number, the less likely it is that anyone will help.


What are the four stages of Latene's and Darley's cognitive model for prosocial behaviour?

1) Attend to what is happening
2) Define event as emergency
3) Assume responsibility
4) Decide what needs to be done


What is an emergency situation?

Emergency situation often involves an unusual event, can vary in nature is unplanned and requires a quick response.


What is diffusion of respoonsibility?

Diffusion of responsibility is the tendency of an individual to assume that others will take responsibility.


What is terror management theory?

The terror management theory is the notion that the most fundamental human motivation is to reduce the terror of inevitability if death.


What is self esteem in terror management theory?

Self esteem may be centrally implicated in effective terror management.


What are attachment styles?

Attachment styles are the description of the nature of people’s close relationships, thought to be established in childhood.


What is fear of social blunders?

Fear of social blunders is the dread of acting inappropriately or of making a foolish mistake witnessed by others. The desire to ridicule inhibits effective responses to an emergency by members of a group.


What has research into individual attributes of helpers presented?

A mixed picture.


What are personality correlates of helping?



What personality factors may influence helping?

People’s mood, attachment style and competence can have considerable influence in some contexts.


What are mood states?

These are your own emotions.


How do mood states affect helping behaviour?

If you are feeling good, they are less preoccupied with your self and can help others.