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Flashcards in Week 9 Deck (70):

Is attraction necessary for friendships?

Attraction is necessary for friendships to form and is a precursor to an intimate relationship.


How many stages are there in a break up?



What are the four stages of the relationship dissolution model?

1) Intrapsychic
2) Dyadic (Two-person)
3) Social
4) Grave dressing


What may evolutionary psychology help us understand about relationship?

Evolutionary psychology may also help us to understand some aspects of why we are attracted to some people and how we may go about choosing a long term partner.


What does an extreme form of evolutionary social psychology?

An extreme form of evolutionary social psychology, is used to argue that close relationships can only be understood in terms of evolutionary theory.


What can a women's fertility status argue?

A women’s fertility status can affect how she relates to some men.


How does a women near ovulation pick up a man?

A woman who is near ovulation is more likely to pick a man who is competitive with other men, particularly when picking a short term mate.


How does seeing red affect relationships?

The colour of the red catches the eyes of men.


Why do people respond to an hourglass figure?

Men have a strong interest in women;s body and respond to a females Waist to hip ratio.


What kind of figure do men prefer?

Men prefer the classic hour glass figure.


What is the averagness effect?

It demonstrates that humans have evolved to prefer average faces to those with unusual or distinctive features.


What factors affect liking?

Proximity, familiarity and similarity.


What is physical attractiveness?

Physical attractiveness is that attractive people are different from those who are unattractive in how they are judged, how they are treated and how they behave.


What is proximity?

Promixity is the factor of living close by is known to play an important role in the early stages of forming a friendship.


How does accessibility affect proximity (which affects liking)?

People who live close by are accessible so that interacting with them requires little effort and the rewards of doing so have little cost.


How has proximity changed with technology?

Proximity has changed with technology but there still is a difficulty with long distance relationships.


What is attitude similarity?

The similarity of attitudes is a powerful and positive determinant of attraction.


What is familiarity?

Familarity is that as we become more familiar with a stimulus (even another person) we feel more comfortable with it and we like it more.


What is one aspect of familiarity?

The mere exposure effect.


What is the mere exposure effect?

The mere exposure effect is that repeated exposure to an object results in greater attraction to that objection.


What is social matching?

People are paired up in the basis of having compatible attitudes but also sharing demographic characteristics.


What is assortive mating?

Assorting mating is a non-random coupling of individuals based on their resemblance to each other on one or more characteristics.


What is self disclosure?

The sharing of intimate information and feelings with another person.


What are two types of societies?

Collectivist societies versus individualistic societies. The


What is the Big Five?

Big Five are the five major personality dimensions of extraversion/surgency. Agreeableness, conscietiniousness, emotional stability and intellect/openness to experience.


What do social psychological explanations of attractioons inclide?

Social psychological explanations of attractions include reinforcement (a person who engenders positive feelings is liked more), social exchange (an interaction is valued if it increases benefits and reduces costs) and the experience of equitable outcomes for parties in a relationship.

Social exchange, equity and justice
Exchange theory does have a future. A strong point of exchange theory is that accommodates variations in relations. The equity theory is a special case of social exchange theory that defines a relationship as equitable when the ratio of inputs to outcomes are seen to be the same by both partners.

Distributive justice is the fairness of the outcome of a decision.

Procedural justice is the fairness of the procedures used to make a decision.


How does consistency theory explain relationships?

Through balance theory.


What is the reinforcement approach to relationships?

People who reward us directly become associated with pleasure and we learn to like them and people who punish us become associated with pain and we dislike them.


What is the reinforcement affect model?

The reinforcement affect model is the model of attraction which postulates that we are like people who are around when we experience a positive feeling.


What is the automatic activation?

Automatic activation is that according to Fazio, attitudes that have a strong evaluative link to situational cues are more likely to automatically come to mind from memory.


What is a social exchange that people use to explain relationships?

Social exchange is that people often use a form of everyday economics when they weigh up costs and rewards before deciding what to do.

• Profit:


What are the four ways people use social exchange to explain relationship?

 cost-reward ration
 minimax strategy
 profit
 comparison level


How are profit used to explain relationships?

Is when rewards are more than costs.


What is minimax strategy?

A minimax strategy is that in relating to others, we try to minimize the costs and maximize the rewards that accrue.


What is the cost reward ratio?

The cost reward ratio is the tenet of social exchange theory, according to which liking for another is determined by calculating what it will cost to be reinforced by that person.


What is comparison level?

Comparison level is a standard that develops over time, allowing us to judge whether a new relationship is profitable or not.


What is equity theory?

About the relationship being equitable. It can also be used for interactions.


What are the two types of equity theory?

Distributive justice and procedural justice.


What is distributive justice?

Fairness of outcome.


What is the procedural justice?

Fairness of procedures.


What is the need to affiliate?

The need to affiliate is the urge to form connections and make contact with people.


Is affiliation with others a powerful form of human motivation?

Affilation with others is a powerful form of human motivation.


What can long term seperation from others from?

:ong-term separation from others can have disturbing intellectual and social outcomes, and may lead to irreversible psychological damage in young children.


What is attachment behaviour?

Attachment behaviour is the tendency of an infant to maintain close physical proximity with the mother or the primary care giver.


Can attachment styles early in life prevail in adult relationships?



Do the ways that children connect psychologically to their care giver have long term consequences for how they establish relationships in adulthood?



What is a secure attachment style?

Trust in others and easy to be in close in others.


What is an avoidant attachment style?

Difficult to trust others


What is an anxious attachment style?

Hard to be intimate and may think others be leave you.


What have life cycle studies of affiliation led to?

Research into attachment and attachment styles.


What is attachment behaviour?

Attachment behaviour is the tendency of an infant to maintain close physical proximity with the mother or primary care giver.


Is love distinguished from mere liking?



Does love take different forms?

It also takes different forms, such as romantic love and companionate love.

1) A cultural concept of love
2) An appropriate to love
3) Emotional arousal



Love is a combination of emotion, thoughts and actions which are often powerful and are usually associated with intimate relationships.


What is the three factor theory of love?

The three factor theory of love is that Hartfield and Walster distinguished three components of what we label love:


What is consumate love?

Sternberg argues that it is the ultimate form of love involving passion, intimacy and commitment. The other kinds of love are companionate love and passionate love.


What are the three kinds of love?

Consumate love. companionate love and passionate love.


What does maintaining a long term relationship involve?

partner regulation, using strategies that bring a partner closer to one’s expectation or standards.


Can companionate love maintain a relationship?



What are three figures that maintaining relationship involve?

• Commitment
• Forgiveness
• Ideal standards


Do most cultures have arranged marriages?



What are four factors that indicate a relationship breakdown?

• A new life seems to be the only solution
• Alternative partners are available
• An expectation will fail
• A lack of commitment to continue the stand


What are four responses to a relationship breakdown?

The four factors are loyalty, neglect, voice behaviour and exit behaviour.


What are two passive stances to relationship breakdown?

Loyalty and neglect.


What are active stances?

Voice behaviour and exit behaviour are active stance.


Do most cultures have arranged marriages?



When can arranged marriages look particulary successful?

Arranged marriages can be successful particularly if we judge them for their social function and duration.


What relationships have been overlooked in research on close relationships?

Gay and lesbian relationships.


Can theories of close relationships assume that close relationships are heterosexual?



What is commitment?

Commitment is the desire to intention to continue an interpersonal relationship.