Flashcards in Week 8 Deck (54):
What are some of the pervasive prejudices based on?
• Sexual orientation
• Physical Handicap
• Mental handicaps
In most Western nations, have prejudices reduced in recent years?
Yes due to legisation and social attitudes.
Have legislation and social disapproval inhibited the more extreme forms of prejudice?
What do expalantions for prejudice overlook?
They overlook the fact that people communicate with one another and are influence by propaganda and massed communication
Do explanations of prejudice explain the widespread collectivist nature of prejudice?
Does the presence of a social environment that encoirgaes prejudice a determinant?
Yes, much stronger and more diagnostic determinant.
When is prejudice more difficult to detect?
When it is expressed covertly or in restricted contexts and it may go almost unnoticed as it is embedded in ordinary everyday assumptions, language and discourse.
How can victims of prejudice suffer?
The victims of prejudice can suffer material and psychological disadvantage, low self esteem, stigma, depressed aspirations, and physical and verbal abus. In its most extreme form prejudice can express itself as dehumanization and genocide.
How can prejudice be expressed in the most extreme form?
Dehumanisation and genocide.
What may prejudice be and how can other people be scapegoats?
Prejudice may be a relatively ordinary reaction to frustrated goals, in which people vent their aggression on weaker groups, which serve as scapegoats for the original source of frustration.
Can all prejudice be explained through the ideas of scapegoats?
How can prejudice be considered an attitude?
Prejudice can be considered to be an attitude about a social group.
What is it called when prejudice is expressed as an behaviour?
It is called discrimination.
What is prejudice?
Prejudice is an unfavourable attitude towards a social group and its members.
How do we learn prejudice?
Attitudes are learnt and therefore we learn discrimination.
According to Vaughan and Hogg, what are two of the biggest social issues today?
Prejudice and discrimination.
Do most of us face discrimination in some way or another?
What is genocide?
Genocide is the ultimate expression of prejudice by exterminating an entire social group.
What is dehumanisation?
Dehumanisation is stripping people of their dignity and humanity.
What is sexism?
Sexism is that prejudice and discrimination against people based on their gender.
What are four ways that sexism can be seen?
Gender stereotypes, gender roles, glass ceilings and glass cliff.
Do gender stereotypes exist?
How do gender stereotypes increase sexism?
. Female stereotypical traits are less valued than male stereotypical traits.
What is a gender role?
Gender role is a gender-stereotypical attributes of a person.
What is the gender role for males?
Full time work.
What is the gender role for females?
Women are homemakers.
What is the glass celing?
Glass ceiling is an invisibile barrier that prevents women and minorities from attaining top leadership positions.
What is the glass cliff?
Glass cliff is the tendency for women rather than men to be appointed to precarious leadership positions associated with a high probability of failure and criticism.
What is one example of the glass cliff?
One example of this is the female prime minister after Brexit.
How is the maintaince of sex stereotypes and roles done through?
Media, faceism, language and attribution.
What is face-ism?
Facism is the media depiction that gives greater prominence to the head and less prominence to the body for men but vice versa for women.
What is attribution?
Attribution is the process of assigning a cause to our own behaviour and that of others.
What is racism?
Racism is prejudice and discrimination against people based on their ethnicity or race.
What is ageism?
Ageism is that prejudice and discrimination against people based on their age.
What are three forms of discrimination?
Reluctance to help, tokenism and reverse discrimination.
Is failure to help a form of discrimination?
What is tokenism?
Tokenism is practice of publicably making small concessions to a minority group in order to deflect accusations of prejudice and discrimination.
What is reverse discrimination?
Reverse discrimination is practice of publicly being prejudiced in favour of a minority group in order to deflect accusations of prejudice and discrimination against that group.
What are the effects of discrimination?
• self-worth, self-esteem, and psychological well-being
• stereotype threat
• failure and disadvantage
• attributional ambiguity
• self-fulfilling prophecies
• dehumanisation, violence, and genocide
What is social stigma?
Group attributes that mediate a negative social evaluation of people belonging to the group.
What is self esteem?
Self esteem are feelings about and evaluations of oneself.
What is stereotype threat?
Stereotype threat is a feeling that we will be judged and treated in terms of negative stereotypes of our group that we will inadvertently confirm these stereotypes through our behaviour.
What are dehumanisation, violence and genocide?
Acts of violence.
What is attributional ambiguity?
If you belong to a group, what explanation do you give to something?
What are self fulfilling prophecies?
Expectations and assumptions about a person that influence our interaction with that person and eventually change their behaviour in line with our expectations.
What are the explanations of prejudice and discrimination?
• mere exposure effect
• authoritarian personality
• dogmatism or close-mindedness
• right-wing authoritarianism
• social dominance theory
• belief congruence theory
What is mere exposure effect?
Repeated exposure to an object results in greater attraction. Therefore a lack of exposure would result in prejudice and discrimination.
What is a scape goat?
Finding an alternative target for anger and frustration.
What is belief congruence theory?
Belief congruence theory is the theory that similar beliefs promote liking and social harmony among people, while dissimilar beliefs produce dislike and prejudice.
What is social dominance theory?
Social dominance theory is the theory that attributes prejudice to an individual’s acceptance of an ideology that legitimizes ingroup-serving hierarchy and domination and rejects egalitarian ideologies.
What is frustation aggression hypothesis?
Theory that all frustration leads to aggression and all aggressions comes from frustration. Used to explain prejudice and intergroup aggression.
What is an authoriatiarian personality?
Authoritarian personality is a syndrome of personality characteristics originating in childhood that predispose individuals to be prejudiced.
What is dogmatism?
Dogmatism is a cognitive style that is rigid and intolerant and predisposes people to be prejudiced.