Flashcards in Week 6 Deck (66):
What is social influence?
Social influence is the process whereby attitudes and behaviour are influenced by the real or implied presence other people.
Do individuals and groups try to change the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of others?
Individuals and groups try to change the thoughts, feelings and behaviour of others.
What can social influence produce?
Behavioural compliance with requests, obedience of commands, internalised conformity to group norms and deep seating attitude to change.
What is social life charaterised by?
What are norms?
Norms are attitudinal and behavioural uniformities that define group membership and differentiate between groups.
What is compliance?
Compliance is superficial, public and transitory change in behaviour and expressed attitudes in response to requests, coercion or group pressure.
What kind of change can compliance be?
An internal change not just a superficial change.
When person is asking for compliance, who is the person asking?
A person who does not have not have authority.
In some situations, can our choice to comply be a rational choice?
What is it called when we act before we think?
What is a reference term?
A group that is psychologically significant for our behaviour and attitudes.
Are people more influence by membership groups or reference groups?
Why are people influenced by reference groups than membership groups?
This is because they are psychologically significant for our atttudes and behaviours, than by memberships groups.
What is a membership group?
Term for a group to which we belong by some objective external criterion.
What is the dual dependency model?
Dual process dependency model is a general model of social influence in which two spate processes operate:
1) Dependency on others for social approval
2) Information about reality
What are two ways for increasing compliance?
Ingratiation and reciprocity principle.
2) Reciprocity principle:
What is ingratiation?
Getting people to like them so they comply.
What is reciprocity principle?
Doing to others as they do to.
What is power?
Power is the capacity to influence others while resisting their attempts to influence.
Are there many different sources of power?
Can people have more than one source of power?
What are the sources of power?
Reward power, coercive power, informational power, expert power, legitimate power and referent power.
What is reward power?
The ability to give or promise rewards for compliance.
What is coercive power?
The ability to give or threaten punishment for non compliance.
What is informational power?
The target that the influencer has more information that oneself.
What is expert power?
The taget’s belief that influencer has generally greater expertise and knowledge then oneself.
What is legitimate power?
The target’s belief is authorized by a recognised power structure to command and make decisions.
What is referent power?
Identification with, attraction to or respect for the source of the influence.
What is obedience?
Obedience is obeying orders given by an authority figure.
What does a lot of the work stem from?
Why was Milgram fascinated by the work of obedience?
It was around the time of a lot of war crimes.
What kind of studies did Milgram do?
Given the right circumstances, do we all have the potential to obey command blindly?
Yes, even if the consequences of such obediences include harm to others.
What is an agentic state?
A frame of mind thought by Milgram to characterize unquestioning obedience, in which people as agents transfer personal responsibility to the person giving orders.
What are three factors affecting obedience?
Commitment, immediacy and group pressure.
How does commitment affect obedience?
It makes it difficult for them to change their minds.
What does immediacy affect obedience?
This includes proximity of the authority figure, legitimacy of the authority figure and proximity of the victim.
How does group pressure affect obedience?
Social support for obedience or disobedience.
What is the ethical legacy of Milgram's experiments?
They have been repeated in different countries with different (but still high) levels of obedience.
What are two concerns with obedience?
• Ethical issues when researching
• Mindlessness: in behaviour and consequences.
Is obedience necessary?
Yes for most groups to function.
What is conformity?
Conformity is the deep seated private and enduring change in behaviour and attitudes due to group pressure.
How did Asch study conformity?
Asch studied conformity with a group of 7-9 researchers and 1 real participant and seeing if the participant would change their answer to fit with the group pressure.
What is the frame of reference?
Frame of reference is the complete range of subjectively conceivable positions that relevant people can occupy in a particular context on some attitudinal or behavioural dimension.
What is the reference group?
Group that is psychologically significant for peoples attitudes and behaviours.
What is the membership group more useful for?
Compliance rather than conformity.
What are individual factors?
• Low self esteem
• High need for social support or approval
• Need for self control
• Low IQ
• High anxiety
• High feelings of inferiority
• Feelings of self blame
• Authoritiarian personality
What are an enormously powerful source of conformity?
Do we all tend to yield to the majority?
Why do people conform?
People may conform in order to feel secure about the objective validity of their perceptions and opinions, to obtain social approval, avoid social disapproval or to express or validate the social identity as members of a specific group.
What are three factors that influence conformity?
• Group size: 5-7 people
• Group unanimity
Do situational factors or individual factors affect in conformity?
What are the processes for conformity?
The following are informative influence, referent informative influence and normative influence.
What is informational influence?
Influence to accept information from another as evidence about reality.
What is normative influence?
An influence to conform with the positive expectation of others, to gain social approval or to avoid social disapproval.
What is social identity theory?
Social identity theory is the theory of group membership and intergroup relations based on self categorisation, social comparsion and the construction of a shared self definition in terms of ingroup defining properties.
What is referent informational influence?
Referent informational influence is the pressure to conform with a group norm that defines oneself as a group member.
What is minority influence?
Minority influence is the social influence processes whereby numerical or power minorities change the attitudes of the majority.
Can active minorities influence majorities?
What is social impact?
Social impact is the effect that other people have on our attitudes and behaviour
What is social impact a consequence of factors?
• Group size
What is attribution?
Attribution is the process of assigning a cause to our own behaviour and one of others.
To be effective for social change, what should minorities should be?
Consistent but not rigid, should be seen to be making personal sacrifices and should be perceived as being part of the ingroup.
Why may minorities be effective for social influence?
Minorities may be effective because unlike majority influence which is based on mindless compliance, minority influence causes latent cognitive change as a consequence of thought produced by the cognitive challenge posed by the novel minority position.
What is conformity bias?
Conformity bias the tendency for social psychology to treat group influence as a one way process in which individuals or minorities always conform with the majorities.