Flashcards in Week 2 Deck (151):
Is the self historically a relatively new idea?
When has the modern Western idea of the self crystallised?
Over the past 200 years.
Why has the self crystallised as an idea?
Due to a number of social and ideological forces.
What forces have caused the Western idea of the self to crystallise?
As a recent science, how has social psychology tended to view the self?
As the essence of individuality.
What did Sigmund Freud believe about the id?
Kept in check by the superego.
What was Freud's view of the self?
It is one you can only know yourself when specialized procedures are employed to reveal repressed thoughts.
In reality, are there many different forms of the self?
What are three types of self?
Collective self, individual self and relational self.
How is the collective self defined?
Defined in terms of attributes shared with ingroup members and distinct from out group members.
How is the individual self defined?
Defined in terms of attributes that make one unique relative to other people.
How is the relational self defined?
Defined in terms of relationships that one has with specific other people.
Who was the founder of psychology?
William Wundt was the founder of psychology.
What did William Wundt's social psychology deal with?
What are four examples of collective phenomena?
Language, religion, customs and myths.
According to Wundt, can collective phenomena be understood in terms of the psychology of the isolated individual?
Since the 1980s, has there been a revival in the interest of the collective self?
Who distinguished between self of conscioussness and self as an object?
What is the looking glass self?
The self derived from seeing others as they see us.
What is symbolic interactionism?
theory of how the self emerges from human interaction.
What does symbolic interactionism involve?
People trading symbols that are usually consensual and represent abstract properties rather than concrete objects.
Why do we look at the self in social psychology?
Because other people can influence the self.
Are people continiously consciously aware of themselves?
What is objective self awareness generated by?
Anything that focuses your attention on yourself as an object.
What is objective self awareness?
Objective self awareness is a comparision between how you are and how would you like to be.
What is a popular way to raise self awareness in laboratory settings?
Placing the participant in front of a mirror.
Who distinguished between the two forms of self that you can be aware of?
Carver and Schiever.
What are the two kinds of self that you can be aware of?
Private self and public self.
What is the private self?
Private thoughts, feelings and attitudes.
What is the public self?
how other people see you, public image.
What does private self awareness lead us to do?
Private self-awareness leads us to match our behaviour with our internalized standards.
What is public self awareness orientated towards?
Presenting ourselves to others in a positive light.P
Can self awareness by very uncomfortable?
Can self awareness be very uplifting?
What does self awareness be uncomfortable or uplifting depend on?
What aspect of self we are aware of and on the relative favourability of that aspect.
What is reduced self awareness a key factor of?
What is deindividuation?
Deindividuation is a process whereby people lose their sense of socialised individual identity and engage in unsocialised, often antisocial behaviors.
What is self knowledge?
Self-knowledge is what we know about ourselves and the construction of a sense of who we are.
What is a self schema?
Information about the self.
What is self knowledge stored as?
Do we have many self schemas?
Do self schemas vary in terms of how clear they are?
How do we tend to use self knowledge?
In particular, what do we have self schemas about?
Actual self, ideal self and ought self.
What occurs if self schemas are rigidly compartmentalised?
Disadvantages including severe mood swings from when a negative self is used to a positive.
What is preferred over rigidly compartmentalised self schemas?
More integrated self-schemas.
How do self schemas influence information processing in behaviour in the much the same way as schemas about other people?
Self-schematic information is more readily noticed, is overrepresented in cognition and is associated with longer processing time.
What is self discrepancy theory about?
Theory about the consequences of making actual-ideal and actual-ought self comparisons that reveal self-discrepancies.
What are the three types of self schema
Actual self, ideal self and ought self
Who wrote the self discrepancy theory?
What is the actual self?
How we currently are.
What is the ideal self?
How we would like to be.
What is the ought self?
How we think we should be
What are the ideal self and the ought self?
Self guides but they mobilise different types of self related behaviours.
When we fail to resolve an actual-ought discrepancy how to we feel?
What is regulatory focus theory?
A promotion focus causes people to be more approach orientated in constructing a sense of self. A prevention focus causes people to be more cautious and avoidant in constructing a sense of self.
Why did Higgin's create the regulatory focus theory?
Higgins’ wanted to go beyond Freud’s pleasure-pain principle that we are bent on procuring the first and avoiding the second.
According to regulatory focus theory, what are the two seperate self regulatory systems for motivation?
1) Promotion system
2) Prevention system
What is one of the ways to know who you are?
Examine your private thoughts and feelings about the world.
Who created the self perception theory?
What is the self perception theory?
Idea that we gain knowledge of ourselves by making self attribution.
What is the over justification effect?
in the absence of obvious external determinants of our behaviour, we assume that we freely choose the behaviour because we enjoy it.
What does social comparision theory state?
Social comparision theory states that by comparing our behaviour and opinions with others in order to establish the correct or socially approved way of thinking and behaving.
According to the social comparision theory who do people seek out?
People seek out similar others to validate their attitudes and self concept in the groups to which they feel they belong.
What does BIRGING stand for?
Basking in reflective glory.
What is another word for birging?
What is birging?
You link yourself to desirable people/groups to improve your own self esteem.
Who do we tend to compare ourselves to?
People who are slightly worse than us. We make downwards social comparisons which deliver an evaluative positive self concept.
What social comparisions do we tend to make?
Downward social comparisions.
What is the self evaluation model?
People who are constrained to make esteem damaging upward comparisons can underplay or deny the similarity to the target or they can withdraw from their relationship with the target.
Do downward socal comparisions occur as a group?
What do social comparisions as a group do?
Influence self conception as a group member and social identity.
What is self categorisation theory?
Turner’s and associates theory of how the process of categorising oneself as a group member produces social identity and group and intergroup behaviours.
According to self categorisation theory, if the group is positive?
Attributes are positive and the self is positive.
What have social identity theorists argued that are the two types of identity?
Social identity and personal identity.
What is social identity?
Which defines self in terms of group memberships.
How many social identities can we have?
More than one.
What is personal identity?
Which defines self in terms of idiosyncractic traits and close personal relationships.
What is the search for self coherence?
We have the quest to find and maintain a reasonably integrated picture of who we are. Coherence provides us with a continuing theme for our lives.
What do people who have highly fragemented selves find it difficult to do?
What are three kinds of people that have highly fragamented selves?
Those with schizopherenia, amnesia and alzheimer's disease.
What is social identity theory?
Social identity is the theory of group membership and intergroup relations based on self categorisation, social comparison and the construction of a shared self definition in terms of ingroup defining properties.
What is social identity salience?
Social identity salience is when a particular identity is particularly important.
What do people use to categorise other people?
Limited perceptual cues.
What do prototypes do?
Accentuate differences and similiarities between groups.
What can social identity salience lead to?
What is metacontrast principle?
The prototype of a group is that position within the group that has the largest ratio of differences to ingroup positions to differences to outgroup positions.
What are self motives?
Motivation to secure knowledge.
Are people overwhelmingly motivated by self enhancement?
People are overwhelmingly motivated by self enhancement, with self verification a distant second and self assessment bringing up the rear.
Why are people probably motivated by self enhahcement?
This is probably because self enhancement services self esteem and self esteem is a key feature of self conception.
What is one manisfestion of the self enhancement motive?
Self affirmation theory.
What is the self affirmation theory?
Theory that people reduce the impact of threat to their self concept by focusing on and affirming their competence in some other area.
What three motives is the self conception underpinned by?
Self assessment, self verification and self enhancement.
What is self assessment?
motive to have accurate and valid information about the self.
What is self verification?
Motive to seek self consistent information.
What is self enhancement?
Motive to seek new favourable information about self.
What is self esteem?
Self esteem are feelings about and evaluations of onself.
So people have generally higher self esteem then others?
What do high self esteem people have?
Clear and stable sense of self and a self enhancement orientation; low self esteem people have a less clear self concept and a self protective orientation.
What do low self esteem people have?
A less clear self concept and self protective orientation
Why do people pursue self esteem?
• Social integration
What do people do to protect and enhance self esteem?
People carefully manage the impression they project. They can do this strategically or expressively.
How can people manage the impression they project?
Strategically or expressively.
Is the pursuit for self esteem universal?
The pursuit of self esteem may be a cultural universal but how one pursues that may differ between cultures.
What is self presentation?
Self presentation is a deliberate effort to act in ways that create a particular impression, usually favourable, ourselves.
What are the two forms of self management?
• Strategic self-presentation:
• Expressive self-presentation
What is impression management?
People’s use of various strategies to get other people to view them in a positive light.
What is self monitoring?
Carefully controlling how we present ourselves.
What are the five components of strategic self presentation?
1. Self promotion
What does strategic self presentation focus on?
Stategic self presentation focuses on manipulating other’s preceptions of you.
What are cultural differences in self and identity?
Individualist Western cultures emphasise the independent self whereas other collective cultures emphasise the interdependent self.
What are the roots of social psychology?
Had psychology until recently underemphasised the importance of culture?
What is psychology dominated by?
What is the study of culture and psychology?
Cross cultural psychology.
What are cross cultural psychologists interested in?
Cross cultural psychologists are interested whether Western theories are specific to the West and how we can evolve psychology with universal revelance.
What is cultural bound?
Theory and data conditioned by a specific cultural background.
What is culture blind?
Theory and data untested outside the host culture.
Is there a single definition of culture?
Culture, history and social psychology
The early origins of social psychology were marked by a concern to describe collective phenomena. Social psychology quickly focused on the individual instead of the group.
Origins in cultural anthropology
Anthropologists, rather than psychologists, conducted almost all research dealing with culture and behaviour in the early 20th century.
Rise of cross-cultural psychology
It was marked by the publication of the International Journal of Psychology in Paris in 1966 and Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology in 1970.
Cross cultural psychologists sought to answer three questions:
1) Are Western psychological theories valid in other cultures?
2) Are there psychological constructs that are culture specific?
3) How can we evolve a psychology with a universal relevance?
The etic-emic dimension is a contrast between psychological constructs that are relatively culture universal and those that are relatively culture specific. The etic perspective is looking at the differences between cultures. The emic perspective involves focusing on a specific culture group.
Culture, thought and behaviour
Culture, cognition and attribution
Cultures vary considerably in social behaviour, including cognitive processes and attributional style. Norms that govern conformity and aggression also differ across cultures. Cultural knowledge allows us to make contextually appropriate causal attributions of behaviour. It is a failure to attend to culture would have interesting consequences for the unfortunate attributor. We also saw that there are cultural variations in attributional styles.
Culture, conformity and obedience
The way in which people function interpersonally and in groups can be profoundly affected by where they work and live. Our geographical location can interact with kinship and family structure, child development and group norms regarding economic practices.
Culture and socialization
Child development is inextricably bound up with cultural norms. Norms that support a subculture of violence are also channeled through the families.
What is culture?
Culture is the set of cognitions and practices that characterize a specific social group and distinguish it from others.
What are two kinds of self according to culture?
Independent self and interdependent self.
What kind of self to people in Western cultures have?
What kind of self do people in collectivist cultures have?
What are Eastern people like?
Eastern people are collectivist and nurture interdependence.
What are examples of Eastern countries?
South America and Asia.
What are people in the West like?
Independent and individualistic.
What are Western places?
Australia, UK and Canada.
Is there more competition or collabaration in Western societies?
How can you characterise cultures by values?
Hofestede and Schwartz.
What are the values that Hofestede uses to characterise values?
• Power distance
• Uncertainity avoidance
What are the values that Schwartz uses to characterise cultures?
• Openess to change versus conservatism
• Self enhancement versus self transcendence
How does Fiscke charactrise cultures?
What are the four factors that Fiscke uses to characterise relationships?
• Communal sharing
• Authority ranking
• Equality matching
• Market pricing
What are two examples of language barriers?
Language barrier is including accents and speech styles.
What is incultural contact?
Intercultural contact is enriching experience to conflict.
What do we consider with non verbal behaviour?
Non verbal behaviour we consider display rules and kinesics.
What can intecultural communication sometimes lead to?
Misunderstandings in meaning and intention.
What are two forms of assimilation?
Total assimilation and melting pot
What is total assimilation?
minorities abandon their heritage and adopt host culture.
What is melting pot?
minorities assimilate and may modify host culture
What is laissez faire cultural pluralism?
Cultural diversity persists without planning
What is active cultural pluralism?
Cultural diversity assists with planning.
What are the two forms of cultural pluralism?
Laissex faire and active
What is acculturating group facing?
Acculturating groups such as migrants face different acculturative choices varying from retaining their ethnic identity to merging with the dominant culture.
Is acculturative stress a common problem?
What is acculturation?
Acculturation is the process whereby individuals learn about the rules of behaviour characteristics of another culture.
What is integration?
Maintain home culture but also relate to the dominate culture.
What is assimilation?
Give up home culture and embrace dominate culture
What is seperation?
Maintain home culture and feel isolated from dominated culture.
What is marginalisation?
disregard home culture and fail to understand the dominate culture