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Flashcards in Week 11 Deck (36):

What is metacognition?

People’s understanding of the way they perform cognitive tasks such as remembering, learning or solving problems.


What is emergent norm theory?

Collective behaviour is regulated by norms based on distinctive behaviour that arises in initially normless crowd.


What are the three types of self awareness?

Objective self awareness, private self awareness and public self awareness.


What is deindividuation?

Process whereby people lose sense of socialised individual identity and engage in unsocialised, often antisocial, behaviours.


What is collective behaviour?

The behaviour of people en masse.


What is metamemory?

Knowledge about one’s own memory and strategies that can be used to help remember


What is intergroup behaviour?

Behaviour among individuals that is regulated by those individual’s awareness of and identification with different social groups.


What are the two types of groups?

Ingroup and outgroup.


What is the ingroup?

Group that you belong to.


What is the outgroup?

Group that you don’t belong to.


What is social categorisation?

Classification of people as members of different social groups.


What is the minimal condition for being part of the group?

may be the only necessary precondition for being a group and engaging in intergroup behaviour, provided that people identify with that category.


What is social identity theory?

Theory of group membership and intergroup relations based on self categorisation self comparasion and construction o a shared self definition in terms of ingroup defining properties.


What do self comparisions stem from?

Self comparisons stem from ingroup and outgroup distinctions.


What is social identity?

The part of the self-concept that derives from our membership of social groups.


What is a stereotype?

Widely shared and simplified evaluative image of a social group and its members.


What is ethnocentrism?

Evaluative preference for all aspects of our own group relative to other group.


What is ingroup favouritism?

Behaviour that favours one’s own group over groups.


What is intergroup differentiation?

Behaviour that emphasises differences between our own group and other groups.


What is one reason intergroup aggression may occur?

Relative Deprivation.


What is relative deprivation?

A sense of having less than we feel entitled to.


What is egoistic relative deprivation?

A feeling of personally having less than we feel we are entitled to, relative to our aspirations and or to other individuals.


What is fraternalistic relative deprivation?

Sense that our group has less than it is entitled to, relative to its aspirations or to other groups.


Why is relative deprivation an interesting concept?

It is an individual concept and a group concept.


What is realistic conflict theory?

Sherif’s theory of intergroup conflict that explains intergroup behaviour in terms of the nature of goal relations between groups.


How can you improve integroup frustation from a relative deprivation angle?

• preventing frustration
• lowering people’s expectations
• distracting people from realising they are frustrated
• providing people with harmless (non-social) activities to vent frustration
• minimising aggressive associations among frustrated people


How can you improve integroup frustation from realistic conflict theory perspective?

• existence of superordinate goals
• cooperation for the achievement of superordinate goals
• avoidance of mutually exclusive goals


How can you improve integroup frustation from a social identity theory perspective?

• intergroup stereotypes become less derogatory and polarised
• existence of mutually legitimised non-violent forms of intergroup competition


Are prejudice, discrimination and integroup conflict difficult to reduce?



What may help group be in contact with one another?

Education, propaganda and shared goals may help and simply bring groups physically or psychologically in contact with one another can be effective and provide a number of conditions are met.


What is the contact hypothesis?

The view that bringing members of opposing social groups together will improve intergroup relations and reduce prejudice and discrimination.


What are strategies to reduce prejudice, discrimination and integroup conflict?

Bargaining, mediation, arbitarian and concilitation.


What is bargaining?

Process of intergroup conflict resolution where representatives reach agreement through direct negiogate.


What is mediation?

Process of intergroup conflict resolution where a neutral third party intervenes in the negiogation process to facilitate a settlement.


What is arbitration?

Process of intergroup conflict resolution in which a neutral third party is invited to impose a mutually binding settlement.


What is conciliation?

Process whereby groups make cooperative gestures to one another in the hope of avoiding an esculation of conflict.