Flashcards in Week 4 Deck (62):
What is communication?
Communication is the transfer of meaningful information from one person to another.
What do we communicate through?
We communicate through:
• Facial expressions
What do we communicate via?
We can communicate via:
• Face to face
• Social media
Why is communication social?
• It involves our relationship with others.
• It is built upon a shared understanding of meaning
• It is how people communicate with one another.
What are the four things that communication requires?
4) Channel of communication
In communication, how can the sender become the receiver?
If the receiver communicates back
What is language?
Language is a system of sounds that convey meaning because of shared grammatical and semantic rules.
How can meaning be communicated by language through a number of levels?
Utterance, locution and illocution.
What is utterance?
Sounds made by one person to another.
What is locution?
Words placed in a sequence.
What is illuocution?
Words placed in sequence and the context in which this is done.
What is an example of illocution?
Whether something is being said as a statement or a question?
What is speech?
The articulation of language.
What does mastery of language require?
Mastery of language requires us to know the cultural rules for what is appropriate to say and when, where, how and whom to say it.
Is language a distinctively human form of communication?
Language is a distinctively human form of communication.
What did Vygotsy believe that inner speech was a medium of
Vygotsy believed that inner speech was the medium of thought and that it was interdependent with external speech. This inderpendence suggests that cultural differences in language and speech are reflected in cultural differences in thought.
What is linguistic relativity?
The view that language determines thought and therefore people who speak different languages see the world in different ways.
Does language determine thought?
No but it eases how we communicate with others about what is important.
What is para-language?
Paralanguage is the nonlinguistic accompaniment of speech.
What are examples of paralanguage?
Paralanguage is how something is...
What do different paralinguistic features do?
Communicate information about the speaker’s feelings.
What is speech style?
Speech style is the way in which something is said rather than the content of what is said. Examples of speech style are language being used and accent.
What are examples of speech style?
Language being used and accent.
What are social markers in speech?
Social makers are the features of speech style that convey information about mood, context, status and group membership.
What are some examples of social markers in speech?
• Social class
What is the matched guise technique?
The matched-guise technique is a research methodology to measure people’s attutudes towards a speaker based solely on speech style.
Has the matched guise technique been used in a range of cultural contexts?
Can how speak affect how others evaluate us?
Why can how we speak evaluate how others evaluate us?
his is because speech styles are associated with particular social groups.
What may use of a speech style that is associated with a lower status group caused people to identify you with?
Their evaluation of that group.
What are speech styles associated with?
Speech styles are associated with particular social groups that are consensually evaluated more or less positively in society.
What is the ethnolinguistic identity theory driven from?
Social identity theory.
What is the ethnolinguistic identity theory?
The application and extension of the social identity theory to deal with language behaviour of ethnolinguistic groups.
What is one of the most distinct and clear markers of ethnic identity?
Speech style or language is often one of the most distinct and clear markers of ethnic identity.
What is ethnolinguistic vitality?
Ethnolinguistic vitality is a concept describing objective features of an inter-ethnic cpntext that influence language, ultimately the cultural survibal or a disappearance of an ethnolinguistic group.
Do people communicate their speech style in the context to which they communicate?
How do minority groups change their speech style?
Minority ethnic groups tend to converge on higher status speech styles uless they believe the status hierarchy illegitimate and the vitality of their own group to be high.
What is the speech accommodation theory?
Modification of speech style to the context of a face to face interindividual conversation.
What is an example of speech accomadation?
For example, when people speak to a child, they may change some of the words that they use and pitch of voice.
What are some motives for the speech accomadation theory?
Motives for speech accomadation theory:
• Desire to help the listener understand
• Desire to promote a specific impression of yourself in order to obtain social approval
What is speech convergence?
Speech convergence is the accent or speech style shift towards that of the other person.
What is speech divergence?
Speech divergence is the accent or speech style shift away from that of the other person.
What may actually govern changes in speech styles?
Conformity to stereotypical perceptions of the appropriate speech style norm.
Are most countries bilinguial?
Yes or multilingual.
What is non verbal communication?
Non verbal communication is the transfer of meaningful information from one person to another by means other than written or spoken language.
What are examples of non verbal communication?
Examples of non verbal channels of communication include:
• Facial Expression
• Interpersonal distance
What can non verbal channels of communication carry information about?
Non-verbal channels of communication carry important information about our attitudes, emotions and relevant status.
What are functions of non verbal communication?
• Provide information about feelings or interactions
• Regulate interactions
• Express intimacy
• Establish dominance or control
• Facilitate goal attainment
What are the six basic emotions?
What are facial display rules?
Display rules are cultural and situational rules that dictate how appropriate it is to express emotions in a given context.
What is gaze?
Looking at someone’s eyes.
What is visual dominance behaviour?
tendency to gaze fixedly at a lower status speaker.
When is the linguistics of body communication?
What are emblems?
Emblems are gestures that replace or stand in for spoken language.
Can a lot be learnt by analysing discourse?
What is discourse?
Discourse is the entire communicative event or episode located in a situational and sociohistorical context.
Are there gender and cultural differences for touch?
There is gender and cultural differences.
What does computer mediated communication do to the paralanguage?
It restricts it.
Does computer mediated language restrict non verbal communication?
Does the interenet have a negative impact on social interaction in real life settings?