Flashcards in Week 12 Deck (29):
Abuyid Dynasty leader
A modest family who belonged to the Seljuk dynasty. With the use of firearms, they had a major advantage over Mamluks.
Believed they were continuing the legacy of Genghis Khan and Sunni muslims. They were against Shi'ites and Christians. Restore Abbasid dynasty.
Ottoman and Byzantines
The Ottomans conquered the Byzantine empire in Constantinople.
Elite troops, often Christian children.
Protectors of Sunni Mulsims
Ottoman believed they fit this role when extending rule to Christian states. Especially under Sulayman.
Ulama and Sufi Masters in Ottoman Empire
Scholars in Islamic hierarchy. They were supported by the state along with sufi masters and therefore could not criticize it.
A dynasty in Iran that originally started to overthrow Sunni rulers This was successful under Isma'il.
Led Safavid dynasty to overthrow Sunnis. Some believed he was mahdi.
Twelver Shi'ism and Iran
Became state religion under Isma'il. They glorified Shi'i heroes (Ali, Fatima, Hasan, Husayn) The tradegy at Karbala became national holiday.
A Safavid ruler who claimed to be hidden imam. Integrated Ulama into Iranian society.
An Indian dynasty established in 1500s by descendents of Genghis Khan. Tried to accommodate the Hindu majority.
A leader during the Mogul dynasty. Also created Ulama system. Tried to create a universalist view of religion in India.
Ulama people didn't like that.
Ruler during Mogul dynasty. Unlike Akbar, heavily favoured Muslim, and tried to convert Hindus.
Colonialism in Muslim World
Began in the 1600s.
Napoleon started in Egypt in 1798. European nations trying to compete with each other.
Ruler of Egypt in 1805-1848. Attempted to modernize his military.
Ulama in Egypt during Colonization
Became dependent on the state and couldn't criticize it. Though they had a lot of conflict with Muhammad Ali.
Impact of Colonization of Egypt
It created two tiers of society. One that benefitted from the free trade with the West, and the poor Muslim communities. Shared very different beliefs and cultures.
Tajdid and Islah
Renewal and Reform
The movement that address the need for Muslims to align with modernity.
There was anti-movement to modernism. These people were the majority, and wanted to return to pre-colonial period.
An example of a fundamentalist reform. Wanted to restore Islam to its original purity. Is now the foundation of Saudi Arabia.
Born in central Arabia, he studied with Ulama, in many countries and became the founder of Wahabi. He was very radical in his belief that all other forms of Islam were bid'a.
Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
An anti-colonialist who converted to Sunni from Shi'ism. Thought Islam must take on technologies of the west while staying true to their faith.
The Firmest Bond
A journal by al-Afghani and Abudh, which al-Afghani used to fuel his anti-Westernization movement.
Al-Afghani's revolutionary militarism. He tried to unite all Muslims against the West.
Originally a Sufi reformist intellectual. Became more engaged in society after meeting al-Afghani. Was very active in the fight against British colonizers in Egypt. Believed education was key to liberalization.
al-Afghani and Abduh
Created the Firmest Bond journal. They criticized Muslims states for ignorance of Muslim foundations, and their despotism.
Conflict with Ulama
With his reformations of Azhar university, condemning polygamy, and condemning Sufism, he ran into a lot of conflict with the Ulama in Egypt.