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91

Definition disturbed sleep pattern

time limited interruptions of sleep amount and quality due to external factors

92

Defining characteristics disturbed sleep pattern

change in normal sleep pattern, verbal complaints of not feeling well rested, dissatisfaction with sleep, decreased ability to function, reports being awakened, reports difficulty falling asleep

93

sleep deprivation definition

prolonged periods without sleep(sustained natural, periodic suspension of relative consciousness)

94

defining characteristics of sleep deprivation

actue confusion, agitation, anxiety, apathy, combativeness, daytime drowsiness, decreased ability to function, fatigue, feeling nystagmus, hallucinations, hand tremors, heightened sensitivity to pain, inability to concentrate, irritability, lethargy, listlessness, malaise, perceptual disorders, restlessness, slowed reaction, transient paranoia

95

safety measures for sleep in health care setting

put side rails up, place beds in low position, use night lights, place call bells within easy reach

96

Ambien

Sonata

97

Zolpidem

Zaleplon

98

Ambien Use

short term treatment insomnia

99

Ambien action

CNS depression at limbic, thalamic, hypothalamic levels, may be mediated by GABA, sedation, hynosis, skeletal muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant activity, anxiolytic action

100

Side/Adverse effects ambien

lethargy, drowsiness, daytime sedation

101

nursing implications ambien

administer after removal of cigarettes to prevent fires, after trying conservative measures for insomnia, 30min-1hr before bedtime for sleeplessness

102

sonata use

insomnia

103

sonata action

binds selectively to omega-1 receptor of the GABA receptor complex, sedation, hypnosis, skeletal muscle relation, anticonvulsant activity, anxiolytic action

104

sonata side/adverse effects

lethargy, drowsiness, daytime sedation

105

sonata nursing implications

administer after removal or cigarettes to prevent fires, after trying conservative measures for insomnia, immediately before bedtime for sleeplessness

106

Phases of respiration

pulmonary ventilation, alveolar - capillary gas exchange, transport of gases, peripheral capillary gas exchange

107

Pulmonary Ventilation

Movement of air between the atmosphere and the alveoli of the lungs (inspiration, expiration)

108

Inspiration

active process

109

Expiration

passive process

110

Requirements for pulmonary ventilation

unobstructed airway, intact CNS, intact brain stem, ability of chest cavity to expand and contract, ability of lungs to expand and contract

111

Alveolar - Capillary Gas Exchange

diffusion=distribution. movement of gases from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries

112

Transport of gases

Movement of gases lungs and heart, heart and tissues

113

Requirements of transport of gases

intact cardiovascular system

114

Oxygen is transported VIA what?

hemoglobin of RBC

115

Carbon Dioxide transported VIA what?

RBC and is dissolved in plasma

116

Peripheral Capillary Gas Exchange

Diffusion = Distribution. Movement of gases from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the peripheral capillaries and body cells

117

Right Side Heart

Pulmonary Ventilation

118

Left Side Heart

Transport

119

Lungs

gas exchange

120

What mechanisms regulate the respiratory process?

neural control- brain stem: medulla oblongata and pons, cerebral cortex, chemoreceptors