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Flashcards in WEST CIV UNIT 2 Deck (106):
1

Which nation emerged first?

The Assyrians

2

What were some good features of the Assyrian empire?

Good military and infantry
Good geographic position

3

What made the Assyrian empire fall?

Their nobility revolted
The Chaldeans and the Persian attacked them & overthrew their government

4

What did the Neo-Assyrians change to when the Persians and the Chaldeans took over?

The NeoBabylons

5

What were the Chaldeans known for?

Astronomy

6

What is the Jewish religion known to be?

A syncretic religion- they combined many belief systems together to form this

7

What is the talament?

A commentary of the Torah

8

Moral Dualism

There is an ongoing struggle between good & evil
& good & evil are evenly matched

9

Ahuramasda

The good influence

10

Ahriman

The bad force

11

What is all religion the result of?

Human interaction with environmental factors

12

Diaspora

Dispersion of the population (when the Jews were exiled from their homeland)

13

What happened to most of the area the Greeks were inhabiting?

They became city-states

14

What became a source more common than farming?

Herding

15

Who did the Greeks have a revival of trade with?

The Phoenicians & Canaan

16

How did the Greeks learn to write again?

They applied the Phoenician alphabet to their Greek dialect

17

What is arête?

The Greek ideology
Achieving individual excellence

18

How could males achieve arête?

Through achievement in war and persuasiveness in speech

19

How could women achieve arête?

Smart and wise management of their household

20

What would nations do if they were in war at the times of the Olympics?

Make a truce

21

Which God did the Olympic honor?

Zeus

22

Which goddess did the women honor at the Olympics?

Hera

23

What was the goal of the Olympics?

To glorify arête

24

What did homer believe in?

The gods were anthropomorphic
They were powerful gods who engaged with humans
They were hard to predict
Warriors went to the alysian fields for afterlife

25

What did Hesiod believe of the Greek gods?

There is a natural force in the universe that leans toward justice
Gods struggled as well as humans
The gods were born out of the earth & chaos coming together
Thought people should strive to be just to the class below them

26

What was the main reason for city states?

Geography

27

Which city had the first form of direct democracy?

Athens

28

When was the archaic age?

750-500 BC

29

Democracy

The male aristocrats could vote

30

Oligarchy

A few people governed the city state

31

Monarchy

A king

32

Tyranny

A single ruler

33

Which city was in North Africa set up by Phoenicians?

Carthage

34

What did the Greeks believe about religion?

It was cooperate
The whole city had to be right in their participation of religion or the whole city suffered

35

What is reciprocity?

The human obligation is to show gratitude to gods for all they received and the gods would bless them

36

Why were Christians punished?

The people did not care so much that they didn't believe in the Greek gods, but they were punished because they did not participate in the religious festivals & put the whole city in danger of punishment

37

More Hesiod beliefs

The gods favored those who practiced justice
The community that supported justice has the support of the gods
The rich had to be fair to the poor to keep the gods happy
His beliefs were very uncommon to the rest of society

38

What was the most innovative idea in this era?

The extension of political rights to the poor people

39

What was a hoplite?

A soldier who had to be wealthy enough to provide his own armor & weapons

They got more political rights

40

Which type of governments were Sparta Corinth and Athens?

Oligarchy
Tyrrany
Democracy

41

What were the three parts of the Spartan government?

2 parts heridetary & 1 part elected

42

What were The two hereditary parts of the government?

2 kings
Head of military and then the priestly head

Council of elders

43

What was the elected part of the Spartan government?

The ephors
They administered policies

44

What was the male purpose in Spartan society?

To be a soldier

45

What were helots?

Slaves from nations the Spartans conquered that did all of the other work in Spartan society besides fighting battles

46

What was the main function of women in Spartan society?

To have children

47

Which society had strange sexual relationships between older & much younger men?

Spartan

48

At what age were boys taken from their homes to go learn to be a warrior & when were they done with their training?

7
30

49

What type of government did the Spartans have?

Tyranny
Most tyrants came to power by tricking & getting support of the poor

50

What type of government did the Athenians have?

Democracy

51

Who could vote in Athenian society?

Aristocratic males

52

Why was Athens the first place to have a democracy?

They were the first place to have a growing middle class & more people needed to state their opinions

53

Who was Cleisthenes?

The father of Greek democracy

54

What did Solon decide?

The top social ranking should be based on wealth, not bloodline

55

What is meritocracy?

Wealth showed merit & in most cultures people were given power because of their bloodline, but it should be earned not inherited

56

What were magistrates?

Archons
People voted for these
Anyone could vote for these, but only the rich could run

57

Who was drako?

A Greek tyrant who tried to help Greece out of their depression

58

Who was Solon?

A Greek ruler after drako with revolutionary new ideas

59

What were some of the things Solon did?

Made it illegal to sell a citizen because of debt
Freed all of those who were already enslaved because of debt
Cancelled all of the debts of the poor
Did not redistribute wealth
Divided citizens based on wealth

60

What type of council did Solon set up?

He set up s council of 400 men who decided what the assembly would meet on & talk through.

61

How were the men in solon's council decided?

By lottery
Any man could be chosen no matter social rank

62

Who took over solon's rule?

A tyrant
Then the tyrant's son
Then Cleisthenes

63

How did Cleisthenes balance power?

Between urban & countryside

64

What did Pythagoras believe had the power to explain natural forces in the universe?

Mathematics

65

What did Thales & Anaximander believe could explain things?

Theorized that there were natural laws that explained the universe

66

What empire was the first to emerge after the dark ages?

Neo-Assyrian

67

How did neo-Assyrian Kings demonstrate their skill, strength, and courage?

Hunting lions

68

Who founded the Persian empire?

Cyrus

69

What is the basis of the Israelite kingdom's wealth?

International trade

70

Who did God reveal Himself to on mount Sinai?

Moses

71

When did the Greek dark age occur?

1000-750 BC

72

What is one of the most startling indications of the severity of life in the Greek dark age?

Greeks lost their knowledge of writing

73

The lord of the trade in tin as a result of the period of violence led Greeks to do what?

Mine & smelt iron ore

74

How was a new social elite established in Greece after the Mycenaean collapse?

Competitive individual excellence produced a new social elite

75

In works & days, how does Hesiod describe Zeus?

The source of justice in human affairs

76

How were political rights generally distributed in Greek city states?

Male citizens of Greek city states enjoyed rough legal and political equality regardless of their wealth

77

During the archaic age, how many city-states were there in Greece?

Hundreds

78

A core belief of Greek religion was that

Humans must honor the gods to thank them for blessings received and to receive more blessings in return

79

What limited the number of slaves working in agriculture in archaic Greece?

They system of agriculture in Greece made owning large numbers of slaves impractical

80

What was the status of Greek women with regard to citizenship?

Free women could be citizens, but they could not vote or participate in politics

81

Spartan society depended on the helots who were they?

Greek slaves taken captive in regions conquered by the Spartans

82

What were Spartan women best known for?

Their high degree of personal freedom

83

Who were Athenian democratic reformers?

Solon & Cleisthenes

84

What important reorganization of society did Solon undertake in Athens?

He made the top ranking social division based on wealth, not birth

85

Pythagoras, an Ionian philosopher living in the city-state of Croton, taught that

Numerical relationships explained the world

86

What was the neo-Assyrian military strength rooted in?

A warrior culture

87

Which peoples joined forced to defeat the weakened new-Assyrian empire?

The Chaldeans & the Medes

88

What role did the satraps play in the Persian empire?

They were regional governors

89

The religion of the Persian empire is bed t known today as

Zoroastrianism

90

Who was the last ruler of a unified Israelite kingdom?

Solomon

91

What did the Greek economy shift from early in the Greek dark age?

One based on settled agriculture to one based on herding

92

What does homer's epic poem the Iliad tell the story of?

The Greek army in the Trojan war

93

What was a characteristic of the early Olympic Games?

Individual athletes demonstrating the competitive value of arête

94

Who was allowed to compete in the Olympic Games?

Any socially elite Greek male accomplished enough to compete

95

What did the Greek poet Hesiod believe that a leader should demonstrate excellence by?

Employing persuasion instead of force

96

How did the mountainous geography of Greece shape its society?

By isolating communities, concentrating resources, and contributing to often hostile relationships between the city states

97

Why did the ranks of the hoplite, once filled exclusively by elites, expand to include no elites in the eighth century BC?

More men were able to afford the necessary equipment

98

As freedom expanded for Greek citizens, how was slavery in the region affected?

Slavery expanded and harsh lines were drawn between free persons and slaves

99

Women in archaic Greece

Had legal, social, and religious rights as citizens

100

Weddings in archaic Greece typically occurred

When the bride was in her early teens and the groom was ten to fifteen years older

101

In the Spartan political system, the Kings

Were just one part of the ruling oligarchy

102

Who established a tyranny in Corinth by overthrowing the city's harsh oligarch in 657 BC?

Cypselus

103

Between 800 & 700 BC, the Athenian economy

Expanded steadily, spreading wealth & strengthening the middle class

104

Which Athenian leader made it illegal to sell a citizen into slavery to settle a debt?

Solon

105

What did the Greeks create out of the near eastern traditions of poetry?

Psalms, or prayers to the gods set to music

106

Why did the near eastern emerge from the dark ages first?

They had a monarchy system.