Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (345):
When was the gilded age?
What was this age?
A time when capitalism was fully embraced
What is capitalism?
Taking a seed (money) and investing it in something in hopes it will grow (create more money).
Why is competition a good thing?
It makes quality, price, and service better
People want the best quality, so competition makes people strive to make a better product
Who created the phrase "survival of the fittest"?
What is social Darwinism?
This says that evolution and survival of the fittest applies to the economy
What quote sums up the idea of social Darwinism?
"If you cannot compete, you deserve for your business to be overrun."
What was a huge product during this age?
Who made the first skyscraper?
What were they calling places with skyscrapers?
What did the world convert to?
What happened to local markets?
They became national markets
What did advertising show men and women?
It especially showed women what the latest style was, but also showed some of that to men
What happened to music in this time period?
It went national for the first time.
What was the US recognized as for the first time?
An industrial power
What else was the US recognized as?
The melting pot
Who was Herbert spencer?
A British philosopher
Created the concept of social Darwinism
What does gilded mean?
Highlighted with gold
Something of a golden color
Who were Nate presidents in the guided age?
Who was Cleveland married to?
What was the name of their child?
What candy was named for her?
Which president was in power when new states were added and how many?
What was the significance of the middle class?
There were a lot of new businesses
It gave people the hope to move up classes
If you were at the top, there was less to fall
How many patents were made between 1860 and 1890?
How many patents existed before that?
Where was Alexander graham bell from?
What inspired him to improve herring?
His mother had bad hearing
What did aleck invent as boy?
A dummy head
What did he and his father invent and they went on tour?
A lip reading machine
Why were deaf people considered retarded?
Because they talked funny
Where did the bell family move and why?
Canada and because of financial reasons
What were two of Edison's inventions that helped people who couldn't hear?
The first amplified speaker and piano
Why did he move to Boston?
There were a lot of deaf schools
Who did he meet?
What did he experiment with?
What was that?
A telegraph with sound
Why did he not make a patent in America first?
He wanted to have one in Great Britain and he wanted to have one in the US and you can't patent anything that had been patented in another country in Great Britain
Who else applied for a patent on the same device on the same day?
What was different about grey's invention?
He used water
Who was the patent officer?
Why did bell win the patent war?
He was a civil war vet who fought in the same section as Wilber
What did were the first words spoken over telephone?
They were spoken by bell saying them to his assistant: "mr. Watson, come quickly, I need you."
What year did he get his European patent?
Where did he go to try to sell his invention?
The western union
How much did he ask them for?
How much was the patent on the telephone worth in 1878?
25 million dollars
What did he create to work on inventions with?
What was Thomas Edison's nickname?
The wizard of Menlo park
What was Edison's most famous idea?
The think tank
How many patents did Edison have?
Was Thomas a good dude?
No. He stole most of his ideas
What was the ticker tape machine?
It was basically the same as a telegraph, but it transferred words on to a reel
What is a phonograph?
What sorts of things did people buy for phonographs?
Recordings of speeches of presidents
Who invented the first motion picture camera, film, and projector and who was the first producer?
What was the first film made?
The great train robbery
What kind of battery did he invent?
What is he most famous for inventing?
A filament for the lightbulb
Who was the biggest backer for Edison?
What was the filament made of?
Where was the first demonstration of flip light switches?
JP Morgan's home
Where did he build the first transformers?
Why did Edison build on Wall Street?
So that the investors could see it
What day did he power up part of nyc?
September 4th, 1882
What other city did he set up lights in?
Which president and his wife were terrified of electricity, therefore refused to touch a lightswitch?
What was one way that Edison advertised for his electricity?
On Coney Island amusement park, he put topsy the elephant down with electricity in public to show the benefits of electricity
Where were most of the immigrants from?
England, Ireland, Northern Europe, Italians, poles, Russians, Greeks, Slavs,
What did the labor contract law do?
Allowed them to pay for the passage of workers in advance and deduct the amount later from their wages.
What were working conditions like?
There was no job security, things were now impersonal because jobs that were done by hand were now done by machines,
How many factory workers were women?
What industry did women mainly work in?
How many children were in the work force?
What percentage of girls ages 10-15 worked?
What percentage of all boys worked?
What kind of laws were there, even if they were widely ignored?
If they were 12 years old, they could only have a 10 hour day
Who were the "Molly Maguires"?
A coal region of Pennsylvania that used violence and murder to do jobs
What happened in the railroad strike of 1877?
They were protesting about 10% wage cuts
Who was the leader of the noble order of the Knights of labor?
Uriah S. Stephens
Who was not allowed in the Knights of labor?
Lawyers, bankers, liquor dealers, and pro gamblers
What did the kol fight for?
8 hour workdays, and no children working
Who moved into a public group?
Terence V. Powderly
What was the federation of organized trade and labor unions of the United States known as?
The American federation of labor
Who was the leader of the afl?
Which group had a strike in the haymaker square?
McCormick Harvester Company
How many people died and were injured in the bombing?
What was the most powerful trade union?
The almalgamated association of iron and steel
Who was the head of the Carnegie system?
Henry clay frick
What were the guards from the Pinkerton detective agency hired by frick called?
What happened when the strike breakers and the pinker tons met?
The sb's poured gasoline on the water and set it on fire and they killed a few people. The almalagated surrendered.
Who was the electricity war between?
Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse
Which person chose direct current and what was that?
Thomas Edison and it delivered electricity only a few miles but was Safe
What was alternating current and who chose it?
Not tamed yet, but could send electricity very far
What did Westinghouse invent?
First air breaks for trains, switches for railroad tracks, electric train signals, 1st automobile shock absorbers
Where was nikola tesla from?
What was tesla?
The first mad scientist
Who did tesla work with when he first came to the U.S.?
Why was tesla fired by his employer?
Tesla wanted to go with AC, but Edison wanted dc
Where did tesla go?
To work with Westinghouse
Who was Leonard pope?
The nation's top engineer
How did pope die?
He was electrocuted and died while making the first AC transformer
Who did pope work for?
Who suggested getting rid of criminals by using electricity?
What did Edison say was the best way to prove AC was bad?
By using it to electrocute people
Who was the first to die on the electric chair?
What did kemmler choose when asked to pick how he would like to be executed?
What did kemmler' lawyer say to try to get out of it?
It was cruel and unusual
What was the chair called?
How did the death of?
He struggled allot and they thought he was dead three times
What did Edison want to call the chair?
Who developed a safe AC transformer?
Where was a huge AC transformer installed?
What were some nicknames of tesla?
Father of physics
The man who invented the twentieth century
Master of lightning
Patron saint of modern electricity
What else did tesla invent?
The first induction motor
What is the tesla affect?
Using any sort of remote
Who invented x Rays and plasma Rays?
What was one of Tesla's problem?
He would come up with an idea but he was so unorganized that he would lose the sketch and forget about it
Where was guglielmlo Marconi from?
What was Marconi famous for?
He was the father of radio
What did tesla get mad about?
Marconi stole his idea and won a Nobel prize for it
Tesla had nothing to do with them
What were the first ice boxes?
Metal boxes with space for a block of ice to come through
Where did the ice men get water from?
What companies were the first to push for electric refrigeration?
What happened when machines were introduced for this?
People lost jobs
It was cheaper
People gained helpful tools
The railroad tracks were tripled
All goods became national
Farms became commercial
What replaced the blubber and oil?
What became popular during this ages?
What was the first vertical city?
What enabled people to make large buildings?
Mass produced steel
What was the tallest structure before skyscrapers?
Who invented the safety elevator?
How did Otis improve the elevator?
He made kinks so that it would not fall all the way to the ground when it fell
What was the first skyscraper and how tall was it?
Chicago's home insurance building
Who were the leading architects of the Chicago schools?
Louis Sullivan and frank Lloyd
What happened to transportation in the guided age?
Where was ten first subway system?
It went under the harbor
Why did la need an aqueduct?
They had no freshwater supply
Who was the head of the aqueduct?
How long was the chute and where was it from?
233 miles long and from owen's called in the north
What happened to the valley?
It was sucked dry
What did the farmers of Owens valley do?
They declared legal was on LA
What were some new things that emerged in the field of advertising?
Trademarks and brand names
Catalogs and magazines
Newspapers with pictures
Blow up things
What were the first trading cards?
They came with cigarettes
They at first had presidents and business men on them but then switched to baseball players
How did Henry Heinz adveritse?
He drove around a huge ketchup bottle
How many brand names were there at the beginning then the end of the guilded age?
What was the most popular way for traveling salesmen to scam?
Medicine- they put addictive thing in them so that people would co tinge to buy them
Where was Heinz from?
Where did Heinz settle?
What was the first product that Heinz made?
What made Heinz different from other companies?
He offered guarantees
He labeled the ounces
He always did the right thing
Practiced the golden rule
Give health care to his employees
Built a library at his factory
Offered fee concerts
Had a clean and well ventilated factory
Had a factory dining room
Where did he get the "57 varieties"?
He just liked the number
Who invented cola and where was he from?
What did he put in the soda and why?
Cocaine and sugar
The more they drank, the more they wanted
Who made coke what it is today?
What was DNS first change Asa made?
Changed the bottle to glass
Why did the soda jerks love coke?
It came pre mixed
Where did Richard Sears work?
A railroad depot in Minnesota
What was the first thing Sears sold?
What did Sears think the best way to reach the country was?
Who did Sears team up with?
Alvah C. Roebuck
What was one claim Sears made?
They had clearly stated prices
Why was the most popular city the most popular one for catalogs?
Chicago because the trains
What did the rural free delivery act say?
Sears could ship their catalogs for free once they printed them
Describe the catalog
500 pages thick
Carried customer testimonials
How tallwas the Sears tower?
What were two popular women's magazines?
The ladies home journal
What did you call the first billionaires if you liked them?
Captains of industry
What did you call fans billionaires if you hated them?
Who was the billionaire that was the son of a New York banker?
What was interesting anout his dad?
He was very conservative and made a small fortune over his lifetime
What was JP Morgan's strategy?
He looked for troubled industries and bought them
Who was Morgan a disciple of?
Fredrick Winslow Taylor
What was the process of Taylorism?
He watched the process of things and tried to see if every step was done on the most efficient way
What was morganizing?
He would bring in people who knew about the industry and the previous owner of companies and ask them how it was and what improvement there could be and he paid them for the advice
Who was the nation's first billionaire?
What was Morgan's legacy?
He created Wall Street
He donated money to museums of art and medical schools.
What did James b. Duke go by?
Where was duke from?
What did duke think he could rebuild the south with?
Textiles and tobacco
What machine did duke buy?
An automated cigarette maker
What company did he found?
The American Tobacco Company
What did duke develop?
Where was oil found?
Which millionaire borrowed money young and bought a small oil refinery?
John D. Rockefeller
What did rock realize the future was in?
Refining not drilling
Where was fine oil refi fig capital?
What movement was rock a proponent of?
What happened in the Cleveland massacre?
He gobbled up 22 refineries
How did rock get rid of the competitor he could not buy out?
He bought the railroad tracks that were under the refinery pumps and he told them they had to stop pumping over his property
What was the concept of trust?
He broke up his company into 100's of small companies and secretly owned all of them so he didn't seem too powerful
What was horizontal integration?
Rock controlled 95% of all the worlds oil refineries and he bought all of the companies related to oil refineries
How did he make his industry more successful?
He forced railroads to not ship anyone's oil besides
How did standard oils original investors do?
They all became multi millionaires
What was the interstate commerce act of 1887?
It forbade railroads from making special deals with anybody
Specifically for standard oil
The newspaper now had to publish their rates
What did the Sherman antitrust act of 1890 say?
If a cooperation was deemed by the federal government to be squashing competition, it would have to go to court and defend itself or start to be broken up
They had to prove they were not a monopoly
What happened in 1892 to standard oil?
If began to be forcibly broken up
What was rocks legacy?
Radio city music hall
Donated to medical causes and researches
Where was Andrew Carnegie from?
Where di Carnegies movie move and why?
What did Carnegie notice?
The importance of iron in the civil war
What did Carnegie hear about?
New steel bullet made by Henry Bessemer who found a better way to make steel
What was the size of the steel maker Carnegie made?
3 football fields
How much did steel production improve?
Prices dropped by 80%
Production went from 3,000 tons per year to 11 million
How many skyscrapers were there in 1902?
Who built the buildings?
What was interesting about the way they built?
Paid very well
Died all the time
40% died or were permanently disabled
What was one of the biggest architectural feats?
The Brooklyn bridge was built
How long did the BB take to build?
What did the bb connect?
Brooklyn and nyc
How did the city of NYC prove that it was not gonna collapse?
It had the wringling brother circus March their elephants across the bridge
Who bought Carnegies business?
How much was caenegie's net worth?
1% of the wealth in the country
What were Carnegies religious views?
What book did Carnegie write?
The gospel of wealth
What did Carnegie believe about his wealth?
He did not want to leave it to his kids or donate it to charity or anything
What did Carnegie do with his wealth?
How made libraries because no cities had public libraries
He did it all for free as long as the people promised to keep it maintained and clean
What did Carnegie give his money to?
Negro charities and Tuskegee institutes
How much money is estimates that Carnegie gave away?
5 billion dollars
What did Henry ford not invent?
Who did invent the automobile?
Who invented the assembly line?
Who made the first cars that used fossil fuels instead of steam power?
In 1900 how many cars were in the U.S. and what kind of people owned them?
8,000 and only the rich who had a mechanic employed on site
Why did ford nor have colors on his assembly line?
It would slow down the production
What was DNS most famous model?
What were other names for the model t?
How quickly could ford say they could crank out s model t?
Every 24 seconds
How much did model t's cost?
What was ford's greatest accomplishment?
He made cars cheap enough for anyone to drive
He mad the first car produced globally
Where was Cornelius Vanderbilt from?
How did Vanderbilt start his business?
He borrowed $100 from his mom and started a ferry business between Manhattan and staten
How did Vanderbilt run his business?
He ignored laws he did not like and he bribed other employees
He went to court thousands of times with shady attorneys
He aggressively pursued government contracts
What became vanderbuilt's nickname?
Who invented the first maritime steam engine?
What did vanderbuilt discover in 1849? And where was it?
A shortcut to California
It went through lake Nicaragua
What direction did Vanderbilt go with his business?
He began to sell his steamship lines and bought railroad lines
What breakthrough did Vanderbilt make in the business of railroad lines?
He made one gage for size of all tracks
What kind of an employer was Vanderbilt?
He was terrible. He payed people with his own money and he didn't even use US dollars sometimes
Who was the first man to die richest man on the earth?
What was Cornelius' legacy?
He had no friends
Alienated from his wife and kids
He left his things to his son that he felt like was most like him
He was responsible for the early labor unrest in the US
Where was the great railroad strike?
It was the headquarters for railroads
What did the men on strike do?
They began to pry up the rails
Set fire to the depots and bridges
Completely stopped moving coal
What did Rutherford b Hayes do in response to the unrest?
He thought like a general
He told his commanders to confront the workers and if they did not respond they had the blessing to fire on the workers
What happened when they fired?
70 people were killed and the riots were over forever
Why did the unions arise?
They wanted to get unified higher wages
Shorter safer reasonable working hours
End to child labor
Men needed the jobs kids had
Why was Ellis island made?
What did the back of the statue of liberty's leg do?
Broke the chain of tyranny
What were there more of in New York that in their home city?
Italians in Rome
What was the first city to have 1 million people in it?
What was the nickname of Chicago?
The wild garlic place
What were the Jim Crow laws?
Kept all things separate like hospitals, restrooms, schools, libraries ect
What case said that things and people should be separate but equal?
Please vs. ferguson
What case ended the Jim cRow laws?
Brown vs board of education
What was a minstrel show?
White people putting paint on their faces to look black and acted like clowns
MaDe fun of blacks
What's were the two jobs black peoples mainly had?
Shoe shiners/porters on trains
Where were most of the immigrants from and what was a reason they did not fit in?
Eastern and Southern Europe
What were the most rejected immigrants?
Where was the only place Irish were welcomed?
What were the names of some of the ghettos?
Why were the Chinese especially hated?
They had shifty eyes and could not be trusted
What did the Chinese exclusion act of 1882 say?
No Chinese people could enter the U.S. and the ones already here could not apply for citizenship
What/where was Hell's Kitchen?
Place of extreme poverty
No plumbing or water
Small apartment with large groups of people
There was no electricity or ventilation
Who was Jacob Riis and what did he do?
Went into hells kitchen and took pictures
The first pictures of urban slums
What was Riis' book called?
How the Other Half Lives
How many copies of Riis book were sold?and who was buying them?
28 million everyone
What positive things did his book start?
Standards and zoning laws
Who was america's first Eco warrior?
Colonel George Waring
How did waring gain fame?
Cleared a swamp in nyc to better conditions that would become Central Park
Where was Waring asked to go to help their city and what did he do there?
Designed the first sewer system
Destroyed a yellow fever epidemic
What title was Waring given in ny?
What was warinf'g strategy?
He wanted nothing to do with politics
He treated it like a military operation
What were waring's first steps and how many miles did he need to cover?
Cleared carts and wagons that were abandoned
Took giant rakes and scraped up pig Manure and other poop
He hired 2000 workers and demanded they wore white uniforms
What were 2 of his ideas?
Recycling and street sweeping
Who was Thomas burns?
He was the first police superhero
Ny police chief
What was the national crime registry?
He established a network of sharing information between cities about bad guys
What was burns the first to suggest?
Psychological profiles on criminals
Where was the triangle shirtwaist factory, what happened there, and what did it start?
A factory in New York
A fire killed 146 garnet workers who were mainly young women
Doors now open outward
What were the crowds of isolation?
Charities rose up
Ordinary people began to think about their responsibility to the less fortunate
Who founded hull house?
What was the purpose of hull house?
The purpose was to teach immigrants to assimilate
What did null house teach immigrants?
How to speak English
How to cook American food
Play American sports
What was the WCTU
Women's Christian temperance Union
What is temperance?
Ban to remove alcohol
Why did women was alcohol removed?
Their husbands would go out and waste their money on alcohol and come home and do mean things to them
Who was carry A Nation?
Huge crusader of alcohol
What did nation do?
She travelled from city to city on trains and sang Christian hymns, took a Bible and a hatchet and destroyed bars
What did the sheriffs do with the women?
Nothing because they didn't know what to do with them
What was The national American women's suffrage association
It was for women's sufferable
Who lead the NAWSA?
Susan b Anthony
What was the YMCA/YWCA?
Young men's Christian association
Who was the ymca founded by?
Why was the ymca made?
For young people to have Bible study
Sort of a hotel
What sports have the YMCA kntroduced?
Basketball and volleyball
Who was the Salvation Army founded by?
What was different about the Salvation Army from other organizations?
They were actually a denomination
What was the purpose of the Salvation Army?
To bring help to the people in the ghettos
Who was in charge of urban ecangelism?
Dwight L moody
What was a promise that Garfield made during his campaign?
He promised to do something about the civil service reform
What system did Garfield set up?
The patronage spoils system
Where was Garfield going and who with when he was at the train station?
Robert Todd Lincoln
Going to make a series of speeches in New England
What happened at the train station?
He was shot twice and fired one hit Garfield in the back and one skimmed his head
Who was Garfield shot by?
Who was guiteau?
Had been stalking Garfield
Phony lawyer, traveling evangelist, and salesman
His family tried to have his institutionalized
What did Guiteau say when he shot him?
I shot the president, Arthur is the new president
How many different doctors did Garfield have?
What did bell bring over to try and help Garfield and why was it unsuccessful?
A metal detector
He had metal springs on his bed
How long before Garfield died?
80 days and died of infection
What was Charles doing while he was in jail?
Writing letter to the people in the government
What did Guiteau tell Garfield?
That he owed his presidency to him
What was garfield's legacy?
The pedleton service reform act of 1883
What is that reform act?
You apply and take a test to get a federal government job
Who became president after Garfield and what did he do?
Gave us time zones
Meridian conference gave us them
What was the first Union?
Knights of labor?
What were the Molly Maguires?
Inspiration for the railroad strike of 1877
What was the American federation of labor?
They were the voice of sub unions
What were some problems of the work forces in that time?
People went from job to job
Many immigrants had the jobs of American citizens
The mindset of the government was to always take the side of the owner, not the union
Who were here workers in the homestead strike?
Steel workers of Carnegie
Who did Carnegie give his power to when he was out of the country?
Who were the pinker tons?
Detectives and spies
Who did the pinker tons fire on?
The workers who refused to do anthing and were on strike
What was the biggest strike?
The Pullman strike
What did George Pullman own?
What kind of an employer was Pullman?
He gave them money they could only use in his stores
What started the Pullman strike?
He cut their wages by 25%
Who was the representative for the railroad Union?
Ugene V. Debs
What did debs do?
He told the workers not to move any trains that had Pullman cars on them even though almost all of them did
Cleveland got involved and put the union people in prison
Who made the first radio broadcast center and what happened to it?
It was never completed because he was decades ahead of his time
What began to replace cobblestone, boardwalks, and brick surfaces?
What was something Heinz often said?
To do a common thing uncommonly well brings success
What verse did Heinz live by?
Who is one of the most famous people to live in a Sears kit house?
Cowboy actor John Wayne was born in one
Who created the very first electric billboard?
Who created the efficiency movement?
Fredrick Winslow Taylor
Who founded standard oil?
John d Rockefeller
Who was the principle author of the Sherman anti-trust act?
U.S. senator John Sherman
What did ford say of the color of cars?
You can have any color as long as it's black
Who founded the American federation of labor?
Who founded the American railway Union and the American socialist party?
Eugene V. Debs
Who wrote the poem the new colossus?
What were the first words ever heard in a movie?
A minstrel singing a song
Who was the nyc police commissioner?
Thomas f. Byrnes
Who was the apostle of cleanliness?
Colonel George waring
Who said good morning destroyer of men's souls?
Carry a. Nation