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Flashcards in Wk2 Pancreas Phys Deck (27):
1

Alpha cells secrete:

glucagon

2

Somatostatin comes from what cell?

D cells

3

Ketone bodies are a product of...

fat metabolism

4

Time in fasted state when glycogen in muscle and liver runs out:

within 24 hours

5

Enzyme unique to liver that allows glucose from glycogen to be released into blood:

G-6-P

6

Insulin effect on fat tissue:

inhibits lipolysis

promotes accumulation of TGs

7

Myocyte stimulators that trigger glycogenolysis:

Epi -- B2 receptors

8

4 main roles of insulin in fed state:

1. glucose oxidation

2. glycogen synthesis

3. fat synthesis

4. protein sysnthesis

9

3 main roles of glucagon in fasted state:

1. glycogenolysis

2. gluconeogenesis

3. ketogenesis

10

Sympathetic effect on insulin in pancreatic Beta cells:

inhibits release

**fight or flight --> need sugar in blood

11

Parasympathetic effect on insulin in beta cells:

cephalic phase of insulin secretion via vagus

12

**main regulator of beta cell insulin release:

GLUCOSE

13

How does glucose get into beta cells:

GLUT2

14

Once in the cell, how does glucose stimulate insulin release from beta cells:

glycolysis --> ATP

ATP --> CLOSES K+ channel --> DEpolarizes cell

--> increases Ca++ via voltage gated Ca channels

--> Ca++ causes release of insulin from vesicles fusing with membrane

15

Effect of thiazide diuretics on beta cells:

OPEN K+ channels --> hyperpolarization --> no insulin release --> hyperglycemia

16

Look at and understand Glucagon and GLP-1 in slide...

17

17

Insulin receptor type in peripheral tissues:

tyrosine kinase --> growth factor

18

Glucagon response to amino acids:

Why?

Increases

to protect from hypoglycemia in all protein meal

19

Glucagon receptor type:

Gs --> AC --> cAMP --> PKA --> PPK --> PYG

20

Somatostatin effect on pancreatic hormones:

inhibits everything

21

insulin effect on somatostatin release:

stimulates

22

Grehlin effect on somatostatin release:

inhibits

23

What are incretins?

GI hormones that mediate intestinal phase of insulin secretion

GLP-1 -- L cells of lower small intenstine

GIP -- K cells of duodenum and jejunum

24

4 phases of insulin secretion:

1. cephalic -- PNS -- sight smell

2. oral -- taste

3. GI -- GIP and GLP-1

4. Blood glucose phase -- direct stimulation of Beta cells

25

Two stimulators of adenylate cyclase (AC) to increase Ca levels and secrete insulin:

glucagon

GLP-1

26

3 inhibitors of AC to prevent Ca increase and prevent insulin release:

Epi

NE

Somatostatin

27

Two stimulators of phospholipase C (PLC) that increase Ca and cause insulin release:

Ach

CCK