03a: Brainstem Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03a: Brainstem Deck (97):
1

(X) cerebellar peduncle only transmits (input/output) to cerebellum.

X = middle;
Input

2

Output from cerebellum primarily via (X) peduncle(s).

X = superior cerebellar

3

Input from cerebellum primarily via (X) peduncle(s).

X = middle and inferior cerebellar

4

The brainstem is a rostral continuation of (X) once (X) passes which landmark?

X = SC

Passes through foramen magnum

5

Tuberculum gracilis/cuneatus are found in which part(s) of (SC/Brainstem)?

Brainstem;

Caudal medulla

6

Tuberculum gracilis/cuneatus correspond to (1/2/3)-order (nuclei/axons) of DCML.

(Contain) 2nd order nuclei of DCML

7

A cross-section through (X) part of brainstem would show the inferior cerebellar peduncles.

Rostral medulla

8

List the tracts that run through the cerebral peduncles.

1. Corticobulbar
2. Corticospinal
3. Corticopontine

9

T/F: The superior cerebellar peduncle only carries output from cerebellum.

False - ventral spinocerebellar tract

10

Pain signals from body synapse on which thalamic nucleus?

VPL

11

Sensory signals from body synapse on which thalamic nucleus?

VPL

12

Pain signals from face synapse on which thalamic nucleus?

VPM

13

Optic tract fibers synapse on which thalamic nucleus?

LGN (lateral geniculate)

14

Auditory fibers from (X) structure terminate on (Y) thalamic nucleus.

X = inferior colliculus;
Y = MGN

15

Cerebral cortex sends axons to cerebellum via (X) tract that first terminates on (ipsi/contra)lateral (Y).

X = corticopontine
Ipsilateral;
Y = Pontine nuclei

16

Pontine nuclei involved in transmission of information from (X) to (Y) via (Z) tract.

X = cerebral cortex;
Y = cerebellum;
Z = pontocerebellar tract

17

R cerebral cortex sends information to (R/L) cerebellum.

L

18

Cortex to cerebellum: Decussation of (X) fibers occurs following synapse on (Y).

X = pontocerebellar;
Y = pontine nuclei

19

Output of cerebellum arises from (X) nuclei.

X = deep cerebellar

20

Where are the deep cerebellar nuclei located?

In cerebellar white matter, located on roof of fourth ventricle

21

Deep cerebellar nuclei send axons out via (X) to which (ipsi/contra)lateral location(s)?

X = superior cerebellar peduncle

Contralateral;
1. Red nucleus
2. VL nucleus of thalamus

22

Red nucleus gives rise to (X) descending tract. This tract plays role in (ipsi/contra)lateral (Y).

X = rubrospinal;
Contralateral;
Y = muscle control

23

Aside from (X) descending tract, red nucleus contributes axons to (Y) tract. (Y) tract synapses on (Z).

X = rubrospinal;
Y = central tegmental;
Z = inferior olivary nucleus (olive)

24

Inferior olivary nucleus receives axons from (X) tract and it then projects to (ipsi/contra)lateral (Y) via (Z).

X = central tegmental;
Contralateral;
Y = cerebellum;
Z = ICP

25

The majority of (X) structure is classified as the reticular formation.

X = tegmentum

26

T/F: The reticular formation consists of the interneurons of the brainstem.

True

27

Pontine reticular formation (rostral pons) contains (X) structure, which produces fibers containing (Y) NT.

X = locus coeruleus;
Y = NE

28

Raphe nuclei produce:

Serotonergic fibers

29

List the key efferent projections of reticular formation.

1. Intrinsic Brainstem Integration
2. Descending reticulospinal motor/reflex control
3. Descending reticulospinal autonomic control
4. Descending monoamine nociceptive processing control
5. Ascending monoamine forebrain excitability control
6. Ascending cholinergic forebrain excitability control

30

Control over nociceptive processing via (X) structure involves which NT?

X = reticular formation;
Serotonin

31

Sleep/wake cycle control is specific (afferent/efferent) function of (X) structure?

Efferent;
X = reticular formation;

Both Ascending (1) monoamine and (2) cholinergic control of forebrain excitability

32

List afferent inputs to reticular formation.

1. Somatic/visceral (from SC and brainstem)
2. Cerebellar/vestibular
3. Corticospinal/corticobulbar collaterals
4. Hypothalamus/diencephalon inputs

33

Ascending monoamine projections from reticular formation act as (X) for functions of (Y) structure.

X = neuromodulators;
Y = forebrain

34

Descending monoamine projections from reticular formation go to:

Cerebellum and SC

35

List the major ascending/descending monoamine NT-specific nuclei of reticular formation. Include the NT belonging to each.

1. Substantia nigra and ventral tegmental nucleus (DA)
2. Dorsal and median raphe (serotonin)
3. Locus coeruleus (NE)

36

T/F: Dorsal raphe produces NT that goes to SC.

True

37

T/F: Ventral tegmental nucleus produces NT that goes to cerebellum.

False - (DA) only to forebrain

38

T/F: Locus coeruleus produces NT that goes to forebrain, SC, and cerebellum.

True

39

"Reticular activating system" involves (X) NT projections from which nuclei?

X = ascending ACh;

1. Pedunculopontine tegmental
2. Parabrachial
3. Laterodorsal tegmental

40

Raphespinal pathway, originating from (X) structure, terminates in (Y) and are primarily involved in (Z).

X = raphe nuclei (reticular formation)
Y = dorsal horn of SC
Z = pain modulation

41

Medullary reticular formation primarily known as being center for (X) and the final common pathway for (Y).

X = motor organization;
Y = all basic autonomic functions

42

Dopaminergic neurons coming from (X) regions of reticular formation have axons that project to:

X = substantia nigra and VTA;

1. Cerebral cortex
2. Basal ganglia

43

(X) nuclei are midline brainstem nuclei that contain (Y) NT.

X = raphe;
Y = serotonin

44

Periaqueductal gray has neurons containing (X). It receives information regarding (Y) from (Z) tract.

X = enkephalin
Y = pain
Z = spinomesencephalic tract (of ALS)

45

Seeing a tract wrap around (X) peduncles makes you think it's which CN? Where is it going?

X = cerebral;
CN II (optic tract);
Superior colliculus

46

CN II immediately projects to which brain structure(s)?

1. Thalamus (then cortex)
2. Superior colliculus

47

CN II can be seen in cross section of (X) structure.

X = rostral midbrain

48

The deep layers of the (X) communicate to head/neck muscles via (Y) tract. This allows for reflexive orienting to visual stimulus.

X = Superior colliculus
Y = tectospinal

49

The (X) structure indirectly communicates with CN (Y) via (Z). This allows for reflexive orienting to visual stimulus.

X = superior colliculus
Y = 3, 4, 6
Z = gaze center nuclei

50

The gaze center for horizontal movements.

PPRF (paramedian pontine reticular formation)

51

The gaze center for vertical movements.

In midbrain...

52

CN (X) fibers are found in the interpeduncular fossa.

X = 3

53

You'd see the oculomotor nuclei in a cross-section of (X) and (rostral/caudal/lateral/medial) (Y) CSF-filled channel.

X = midbrain
rostral;
Y = cerebral aqueduct

54

(Sympathetic/parasympathetic) nucleus of CN III located immediately (rostral/caudal/lateral/medial) to motor nucleus. What's it formally called?

Parasympathetic;
caudal;
Edinger-Westphal nucleus

55

Location of CN (X) is associated with the inferior colliculus.

X = 4

56

CN (X) indents a tract called (Y) and emits fibers that travel dorsally and caudally.

X = 4;
Y = medial longitudinal fasciculus

57

Upon emerging from dorsal brainstem, caudal to (X) structure, CN (Y) travels to innervate (ipsi/contra)lateral (Z).

X = inferior colliculus;
Y = 4
Contralateral;
Z = superior oblique muscle

58

You'd see the trochlear nucleus in a cross-section of (X) and (rostral/caudal/lateral/medial) (Y) CSF-filled channel.

X = midbrain;
rostral;
Y = cerebral aqueduct

59

MLF located (rostral/caudal/lateral/medial) to its associated CN (X) nucleus.

Rostral;
X = 4

60

T/F: You can't see the MLF and the fourth ventricle in the same cross-section.

False - directly rostral to fourth ventricle and caudal to pons

61

Analog for SC in the head (based on functions).

Trigeminal system

62

(X) muscles controlled by trigeminal nerve fibers that arise from (Y) nucleus.

X = mastication
Y = motor nucleus of V

63

Fine touch/P sensation to face: first order neuron has nucleus in (X). Fibers enter/travel in (Y) structure to synapse onto (Z) nucleus.

X = DRG
Y = pons (lateral)
Z = chief sensory nucleus of V

64

Fine touch/P sensation fibers from face synapse on (X) nucleus that's (rostral/caudal/medial/lateral) to (Y) nucleus of V.

X = chief sensory nucleus of V
Lateral;
Y = motor

65

Fine touch/P sensation to face: third-order neurons located in (ipsi/contra)lateral (X).

Contralateral
X = VPM nucleus of thalamus

66

(Sensory/motor) tracts related to trigeminal nerve decussate after emerging from (X) nucleus.

Sensory;
X = chief sensory nucleus of V AND spinal nucleus of V

67

Pain sensation to face: third-order neurons located in (ipsi/contra)lateral (X).

Contralateral;
X = VPM

68

(X) nucleus of CN V extends from pons, through medulla, to cervical SC. Where does its morphology change?

X = Spinal nucleus and track of V

In caudal medulla

69

Spinal nucleus of V is extension of (X) of SC.

X = dorsal horn gray (substantia gelatinosa and nucleus proprius)

70

DRG for (X) is strangely located within the brainstem. Specifically in which nucleus?

X = muscles sense from muscles of mastication;

Mesencephalic nucleus of V

71

Mesencephalic nucleus of V is located (above/below) chief and motor nuclei of V.

Above (in midbrain)

72

Analog of Clarke's Column/external cuneate nucleus for mastication is (X). (X) receives muscle spindle info from (Y) and relays it to (Z).

X = spinal nucleus of V
Y = mesencephalic nucleus of V
Z = cerebellum

73

Mesencephalic nucleus of V contains neurons involved in (sensory/motor).

Both!

74

Mesencephalic nucleus of V sends information to:

1. Motor nucleus of V
2. Spinal nucleus of V

75

Output from (X) to (Y) responsible for myotatic reflexes in muscles of mastication.

X = mesencephalic nucleus of V
Y = motor nucleus of V

76

List the CN nerves (from medial to lateral) that emerge from ponto-medullary junction.

6, 7, 8

77

Facial nucleus is (rostral/caudal/adjacent) to Abducens nucleus and (medial/lateral) to (X) CN nucleus.

Rostral;
Medial;
X = spinal nucleus of V

78

High pressure in fourth ventricle tends to affect which CN? This is due to pressure on (X), a hill produced in its fibers loop over (Y).

CN VII;
X = facial colliculus
Y = Abducens nucleus

79

Nucleus ambiguus, aka (X), is involved in (afferents/efferents) for which CN?

X = ventral motor nucleus of vagus;

Voluntary efferent (motor);
CN 9 and 10

80

Inferior salivatory nucleus is involved in (afferents/efferents) for which CN?

Efferents (parasympathetic) for CN 9

81

Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus is involved in (afferents/efferents) for which CN?

Efferents (parasympathetic) for CN 10

82

Which CN nucleus located immediately caudal to medullary olive?

Nucleus ambiguus

83

Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus located (rostral/caudal/adjacent) to nucleus ambiguus.

Caudal

84

Nucleus of solitary tract is (motor/sensory) nucleus.

Sensory (taste and visceral input)

85

Rostral part of nucleus of solitary tract receives (X) fibers of which CN?

X = taste;

CN VII, IX, X

86

Caudal part of nucleus of solitary tract receives (X) fibers of which CN?

X = general visceral sensory;

CN IX, X, XI

87

The nucleus of solitary tract is where, wrt solitary tract?

Surrounds it

88

First order neurons of solitary tract located in:

Peripheral sensory ganglia of CN VII, IX, X

89

Second order neurons of solitary tract located in:

Nucleus of solitary tract

90

Second order neurons of solitary tract project to:

1. VPM thalamus
2. Parabrachial nucleus
3. Dorsal motor nucleus of Vagus

91

Nucleus of solitary tract project to (X) via (Y). This signal regarding (Z) eventually reaches consciousness.

X = VPM thalamus;
Y = central tegmental tract
Z = taste

92

Nucleus of solitary tract project to (X) via (Y). This circuit contributes to autonomic/visceral responses to (Z).

X = parabrachial nucleus (then hypothalamus and amygdala)
Y = central tegmental tract;
Z = taste

93

Nucleus of solitary tract project locally to (X), located (rostral/caudal/medial/lateral), for (Y) functions.

X = dorsal motor nucleus of vagus
Medial/caudal;
Y = autonomic and reflex responses

94

Corticobulbar fibers travel in (X) peduncle, (medial/lateral) to corticospinal fibers.

X = cerebral;
Medial

95

(X) tract projects to non-CN nuclei to control subcorticospinal pathways. List these nuclei.

X = corticobulbar;

1. Superior colliculus
2. Red nucleus
3. Reticular formation

96

Cortex controls cranial nerves via (X), which projects directly to which CN nuclei?

X = corticobulbar tract;

1. Motor nucleus of V (5)
2. Facial nucleus (7)
3. Vestibular nuclei (8)
4. Hypoglossal nucleus (12)

97

Cortex controls cranial nerves via (X), which projects indirectly, via (Y), to which CN nuclei?

X = corticobulbar tract;
Y = horizontal and vertical gaze centers;

CN III, IV, VI