Flashcards in 10a: Cortex I (Architectonics) Deck (47)
The limbic lobe includes which structures? Star the one that encircles (X).
1. Cingulate gyrus*
2. Parahippocampal gyrus*
X = diencephalon
Cortex surface area is greatest in (mouse/monkey/human).
The cerebral cortex can be separated into which basic type(s)? List the most abundant of these.
In humans, the neocortex accounts for (X)% of the cortex.
X = 90
Neocortex has how many layers?
T/F: Both allocortex and neocortex have 6 layers of nerve cells.
False - allocortex has less
Hippocampus is considered (neocortex/allocortex).
Most abundant cell type in cerebral cortex is (X), primarily found in which layer(s) of neocortex?
X = pyramidal cells;
Layers 2, 3, 5, 6
The long, (ascending/descending) apical dendrite of (X) cell passes through cortex to reach layer (Y) and form its apical (Z).
X = pyramidal;
Y = 1
Z = tuft
In pyramidal cells, (apical/basal/both/neither) dendrites are covered in dendritic spines.
T/F: Pyramidal cells are main projection neurons of cerebral cortex.
Pyramidal cells of cortex have (X) number of axons, with extensive (Y) to contact neurons in (adjacent/subsequent) cortical columns.
X = 1
Y = collateral arbors;
Adjacent (within same cortical area)
Pyramidal cells are (excitatory/inhibitory) and use which NT(s)?
Glu (primarily) and some Asp
(X) cells are just like pyramidal cells, but lack (Y). They're (excitatory/inhibitory).
X = spiny stellate;
Y = apical dendrites;
T/F: Spiny stellate cells lack dendritic spines.
False - possess many dendritic spines
The non-pyramidal (excitatory/inhibitory) neurons in cortex primarily use which NT(s)?
Non-pyramidal neurons are found in which layer(s) of cortex?
(Pyramidal/non-pyramidal) cells are referred to as "local circuit" neurons and make up about (X)% of neuronal population in cerebral cortex.
X = 20
Many (pyramidal/non-pyramidal) cells also contain peptides and (X)-binding proteins.
X = Ca
(X) stain shows characteristics of cell bodies within cerebral cortex.
X = Nissl
Neocortex Layer 1, aka (X) layer, contains primarily (Y) with (few/many) neurons.
X = molecular;
Y = apical tufts of pyramidal cells (and axons that they terminate on);
Neocortex Layers 2/3 contain predominantly (small/large) (X) cells.
Small and medium;
X = pyramidal
Neocortex Layer 4 characterized by (X) cells.
X = small spiny stellate or pyramidal
Neocortex Layer 5 characterized by (X) cells.
X = large pyramidal
Neocortex Layer 6A characterized by (X) cells.
X = small or medium pyramidal
Neocortex Layer 6B characterized by (X) cells.
X = horizontal
Which layer of neocortex receives main input from thalamus?
T/F: There are variations in layering pattern throughout the cortex. Some layers can be more/less prominent in certain areas.
In (X) areas, the (small/large) neurons of Layer 4 are particularly prominent. The cortex is referred to as (Y) in these areas.
X = primary sensory;
Y = granular cortex
(X) areas lack a prominent Layer 4. These areas of cortex are referred to as (Y).
X = motor cortex;
Y = agranular
In cortical areas with neurons that project long distances, (X) cells in Layer (Y) may be very (small/large). Give an example.
X = pyramidal;
Y = 5
Precentral gyrus/primary motor cortex (Betz cells very large)
(X) stain shows axon bundles that radiate through cortex.
X = Myelin (i.e. Weigert)
Myelinated axons are arranged in (vertical/horizontal) bands.
Somatosensory cortex occupies which Brodmann areas?
1, 2, 3
Motor cortex occupies which Brodmann areas?
Primary visual cortex occupies which Brodmann areas?
Auditory cortex occupies which Brodmann areas?
In order for cortical area to be considered "distinct", the region must have distinct:
Most synapses formed in cerebral cortex come from (extrinsic/intrinsic) neurons.
Information analyzed by cortex comes from (extrinsic/intrinsic) sources and is nearly all (excitatory/inhibitory).
List the sources of input to the cerebral cortex.
2. Other cortical areas
3. Callosal/commissural input
T/F: Thalamus sends input only to layer 4 of neocortex.
False - layers 3 and 6 also
The (excitatory/inhibitory) input from thalamus to cortex terminates on which cell type(s)?
2. Inhibitory (non-pyramidal)
"Association input" to cortex, from (X) areas, terminates primarily in which layer(s) of neocortex?
X = other cortical;
Layer 3 (and some feedback to layer 1)
"Callosal input" to cortex terminates primarily in Layer (X) of neocortex and send efferents that arise form Layer (Y) of neocortex.
X = Y = 3
T/F: All cortical areas give rise to and receive callosal connections.