10a: Cortex I (Architectonics) Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > 10a: Cortex I (Architectonics) > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10a: Cortex I (Architectonics) Deck (47):
1

The limbic lobe includes which structures? Star the one that encircles (X).

1. Cingulate gyrus*
2. Parahippocampal gyrus*

X = diencephalon

2

Cortex surface area is greatest in (mouse/monkey/human).

Human

3

The cerebral cortex can be separated into which basic type(s)? List the most abundant of these.

1. Neocortex*
2. Allocortex

4

In humans, the neocortex accounts for (X)% of the cortex.

X = 90

5

Neocortex has how many layers?

6

6

T/F: Both allocortex and neocortex have 6 layers of nerve cells.

False - allocortex has less

7

Hippocampus is considered (neocortex/allocortex).

Allocortex

8

Most abundant cell type in cerebral cortex is (X), primarily found in which layer(s) of neocortex?

X = pyramidal cells;

Layers 2, 3, 5, 6

9

The long, (ascending/descending) apical dendrite of (X) cell passes through cortex to reach layer (Y) and form its apical (Z).

Ascending;
X = pyramidal;
Y = 1
Z = tuft

10

In pyramidal cells, (apical/basal/both/neither) dendrites are covered in dendritic spines.

Both

11

T/F: Pyramidal cells are main projection neurons of cerebral cortex.

True

12

Pyramidal cells of cortex have (X) number of axons, with extensive (Y) to contact neurons in (adjacent/subsequent) cortical columns.

X = 1
Y = collateral arbors;
Adjacent (within same cortical area)

13

Pyramidal cells are (excitatory/inhibitory) and use which NT(s)?

Excitatory;
Glu (primarily) and some Asp

14

(X) cells are just like pyramidal cells, but lack (Y). They're (excitatory/inhibitory).

X = spiny stellate;
Y = apical dendrites;
Excitatory

15

T/F: Spiny stellate cells lack dendritic spines.

False - possess many dendritic spines

16

The non-pyramidal (excitatory/inhibitory) neurons in cortex primarily use which NT(s)?

Inhibitory;
GABA

17

Non-pyramidal neurons are found in which layer(s) of cortex?

All

18

(Pyramidal/non-pyramidal) cells are referred to as "local circuit" neurons and make up about (X)% of neuronal population in cerebral cortex.

Non-pyramidal;
X = 20

19

Many (pyramidal/non-pyramidal) cells also contain peptides and (X)-binding proteins.

Non-pyramidal;
X = Ca

20

(X) stain shows characteristics of cell bodies within cerebral cortex.

X = Nissl

21

Neocortex Layer 1, aka (X) layer, contains primarily (Y) with (few/many) neurons.

X = molecular;
Y = apical tufts of pyramidal cells (and axons that they terminate on);
Few

22

Neocortex Layers 2/3 contain predominantly (small/large) (X) cells.

Small and medium;
X = pyramidal

23

Neocortex Layer 4 characterized by (X) cells.

X = small spiny stellate or pyramidal

24

Neocortex Layer 5 characterized by (X) cells.

X = large pyramidal

25

Neocortex Layer 6A characterized by (X) cells.

X = small or medium pyramidal

26

Neocortex Layer 6B characterized by (X) cells.

X = horizontal

27

Which layer of neocortex receives main input from thalamus?

Layer 4

28

T/F: There are variations in layering pattern throughout the cortex. Some layers can be more/less prominent in certain areas.

True

29

In (X) areas, the (small/large) neurons of Layer 4 are particularly prominent. The cortex is referred to as (Y) in these areas.

X = primary sensory;
Small;
Y = granular cortex

30

(X) areas lack a prominent Layer 4. These areas of cortex are referred to as (Y).

X = motor cortex;
Y = agranular

31

In cortical areas with neurons that project long distances, (X) cells in Layer (Y) may be very (small/large). Give an example.

X = pyramidal;
Y = 5
Large;

Precentral gyrus/primary motor cortex (Betz cells very large)

32

(X) stain shows axon bundles that radiate through cortex.

X = Myelin (i.e. Weigert)

33

Myelinated axons are arranged in (vertical/horizontal) bands.

Both

34

Somatosensory cortex occupies which Brodmann areas?

1, 2, 3

35

Motor cortex occupies which Brodmann areas?

4

36

Primary visual cortex occupies which Brodmann areas?

17

37

Auditory cortex occupies which Brodmann areas?

41, 42

38

In order for cortical area to be considered "distinct", the region must have distinct:

1. Cyto/myelo-architectonics
2. Connections
3. Function

39

Most synapses formed in cerebral cortex come from (extrinsic/intrinsic) neurons.

Intrinsic

40

Information analyzed by cortex comes from (extrinsic/intrinsic) sources and is nearly all (excitatory/inhibitory).

Extrinsic;
Excitatory

41

List the sources of input to the cerebral cortex.

1. Thalamus
2. Other cortical areas
3. Callosal/commissural input

42

T/F: Thalamus sends input only to layer 4 of neocortex.

False - layers 3 and 6 also

43

The (excitatory/inhibitory) input from thalamus to cortex terminates on which cell type(s)?

Excitatory;

1. Pyramidal
2. Inhibitory (non-pyramidal)

44

"Association input" to cortex, from (X) areas, terminates primarily in which layer(s) of neocortex?

X = other cortical;

Layer 3 (and some feedback to layer 1)

45

"Callosal input" to cortex terminates primarily in Layer (X) of neocortex and send efferents that arise form Layer (Y) of neocortex.

X = Y = 3

46

T/F: All cortical areas give rise to and receive callosal connections.

False

47

Feedback to Thalamus primarily arises from (pyramidal/non-pyramidal) cells in Layer (Y) of neocortex.

Pyramidal;
Y = 6