11a: Basal Ganglia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 11a: Basal Ganglia Deck (39):
1

Which structure of the basal ganglia is the oldest?

Amygdala

2

The striatum are (X) structures interconnected. They're also interconnected with which other structures? These are essential for proper functioning of:

X = caudate and putamen

1. GP
2. SN
3. Subthalamic nuclei

Voluntary motor systems

3

The basal ganglia give rise to (X) descending tract(s), innervating LMN.

NONE

4

The basal ganglia give rise to (X) descending tract(s), innervating CN.

NONE

5

Which structure of basal ganglia is most recently developed?

Striatum (aka "neostriatum")

6

Afferents to the striatum arise mainly from layer (X) neurons.

X = Layer 5

7

Prefrontal cortices terminate in (putamen/caudate).

Caudate

8

Temporal and parietal association areas terminate in (putamen/caudate).

Caudate

9

Motor cortices terminate in (putamen/caudate).

Putamen

10

Somatosensory cortices terminate in (putamen/caudate).

Putamen

11

(Caudate/putamen) sends inhibitory efferents to (external/internal) segments of GP. Which NT used at the synapse?

Both; Both

GABA

12

The pallidum is another name for:

GP

13

The "lentiform nucleus" is made up of:

Pallidum and putamen

14

GP external segment sends (excitatory/inhibitory) projections to (X). Which NT is used?

Inhibitory (GABA);
X = Subthalamic nucleus

15

GP internal segment sends (excitatory/inhibitory) projections to (X). Which NT is used?

Inhibitory (GABA);
X = VA/VL Thalamus

16

(X) structure as actually part of pallidum, but was separated by the cerebral peduncle. Like (external/internal) GP, it receives (excitatory/inhibitory) afferents from (Y) and sends (excitatory/inhibitory) efferents to (Z).

X = SN (pars reticulata)
Internal;
Inhibitory; Y = striatum
Inhibitory; Z = thalamus

17

The (internal/external) segment of pallidum sends efferents to thalamus via which white-matter tracts? Star the one that penetrates (X).

Internal;
X = internal capsule

1. Lenticular fasciculus*
2. Ansa lenticularis

18

Cerebellar input to (X) of thalamus, specifically from (Y) nucleus, (mirrors/contrasts) that of the pallidum.

X = VA/VL;
Y = dentate
Contrasts (is excitatory)

19

SNpc is (identical/different) from SNpr. It's composed of (GABA/glutamin/dopamin)-ergic neurons. It receives (excitatory/inhibitory) in put from (X) and sends its efferents to (Y).

Different;
Dopaminergic;
Excitatory
X = cerebral cortex;
Y = striatum

20

Dopamine released by SN(pr/pc) has which effect on the targeted (X) structure?

SNpc;
X = striatum

1. Excitatory if D1 receptor
2. Inhibitory if D2 receptor

21

The subthalamic nucleus is located in the (telencephalon/diencephalon/midbrain) and is reciprocally connected with (X). It receives (excitatory/inhibitory) input from (X) and projects (excitatory/inhibitory) output to (Y).

Diencephalon;
X = GP
Inhibitory from external X = GP
Excitatory;
Y = internal GP

22

Overall, activation of subthalamic nucleus via (increase/decrease) GP(i/e) output has (excitatory/inhibitory) control over thalamus.

Decrease
GPe
Inhibitory (since subthalamic nucleus excites GP internal, which inhibits thalamus)

23

Overall, (activation/inhibition) of subthalamic nucleus via cortex has (excitatory/inhibitory) control over thalamus.

Activation;
Inhibitory (since subthalamic nucleus excites GP internal, which inhibits thalamus)

24

Overall, activation of subthalamic nucleus has (excitatory/inhibitory) control over cortex.

Inhibitory

25

List the components of the "direct path" of motor control via the basal ganglia. Put +/- following each component to indicate whether it's sending excitatory/inhibitory efferents.

1. Cortex (+)
2. Striatum (-)
3. GP/SNpr (-)
4. VA/VL (+)
5. Cortex

26

The "direct path" of motor control via basal ganglia has net (excitatory/inhibitory) effect.

Excitatory (on select motor programs)

27

List the components of the "indirect path" of motor control via the basal ganglia. Put +/- following each component to indicate whether it's sending excitatory/inhibitory efferents.

1. Cortex (+)
2. Straitum (-)
3. GP external (-)
4. Subthalamic nucleus (+)
5. GP internal (-)
6. VA/VL (+)
7. Cortex

28

The basal ganglia are located in (telen/dien/mesen)-cephalon.

Specific BG nuclei found in all three

29

List the key nuclei of the basal ganglia. Put "T", "D", or "M" next to each, depending on if it's in telen/dien/mesen-cephalon.

1. Striatum - Caudate, Putamen (T)
2. Pallidum (T)
3. Subthalamic nucleus (D)
4. Substantia Nigra (M)

30

Direct pathway neurons in (X) structure have (D1/D2) dopamine receptors, which (hyper/de)-polarize the cell in response to dopamine.

X = striatum;
D1
Depolarize

31

Indirect pathway neurons in (X) structure have (D1/D2) dopamine receptors, which (hyper/de)-polarize the cell in response to dopamine.

X = striatum;
D2
Hyperpolarize

32

The nigrostriatal pathway, aka (X) sending efferent signals to (Y), has the dual effect of :

X = SNpc
Y = striatum

1. Exciting direct (stimulatory) pathway
2. Inhibiting indirect (inhibitory) pathway

33

Excitation of the nigrostriatal pathway has the net effect of (exciting/inhibiting) cortex.

Exciting

34

Which pathway is compromised in Parkinson's disease?

Nigrostriatal (SNpc to striatum)

35

Hemiballismus is caused by (unilateral/bilateral) destruction of (X). What does the condition present as?

Unilateral;
X = subthalamic nucleus;

Involuntary/irregular flinging of contralateral extremity

36

Huntington's Disease is caused by early degeneration of (X). What does the condition present as?

X = striatum;

Involuntary, writhing movements

37

What are the three cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's?

1. Bradykinesia
2. Rigidity
3. Tremor

38

What are the symptoms of Dopamine excess in PD treatment?

1. Dyskinesias (involuntary discoordinated movement)
2. Dystonia (involuntary abnormal postures)
3. Delusions/hallucinations/misperceptions

39

One FDA approved treatment for PD is (uni/bi)-lateral stimulation of (X) structure. This (raises/lowers) its firing rate.

Bilateral;
X = subthalamic nucleus;
Lowers (thus decreasing GPi activation)