10b: Cortex II (Development) Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > 10b: Cortex II (Development) > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10b: Cortex II (Development) Deck (47):
1

Which foramen connects lateral ventricles to the subsequent (X) ventricle?

X = third

Foramen of Monro

2

During development, the hemispheres first grow/expand in which direction(s) to form (X) lobe?

Forward
X = frontal lobe

3

During development, the hemispheres grow/expand upward/laterally to form (X) lobe/area?

X = parietal

4

During development, the hemispheres grow/expand posteriorly to form (X) lobe/area?

X = occipital

5

During development, the hemispheres grow/expand inferiorly to form (X) lobe/area?

X = temporal

6

The temporal lobe is marked during development by indentation called (X), which grows backwards. Inside the area of (X) is the future (Y).

X = lateral fissure;
Y = insula

7

List the commissures that appear during development, in the order which they appear.

1. Anterior
2. Commissure of fornix
3. Corpus callosum

8

The anterior commissure connects:

Olfactory bulb and portions of temporal lobes

9

The thin wall of hemispheres extending vertically from corpus callosum to (X) is called (Y).

X = fornix
Y = septum pellucidum

10

T/F: Neuro-epithleium of cerebral hemispheres is much like the epithelium of rest of neural tube.

True

11

Neuroepithelium of cerebral hemispheres is (single/multi)-layered (X) type of epithelium.

Single;
X = pseudo stratified

12

Neuroepithelium of cerebral hemispheres has zones that differ based on:

Density of cells within zone

13

The marginal zone of cerebral hemisphere is near (X) and is cell-(sparse/dense).

X = the pia
Sparse

14

The ventricular zone of cerebral hemisphere is near (X) and is cell-(sparse/dense).

X = ventricles
Dense

15

The (marginal/ventricular) zone of neuro-epithelium consists of (X) cells, which eventually divide/differentiate to generate (Y) of cortex.

Ventricular;
X = neuroblasts;
Y = pyramidal neurons and glia

16

Cerebral cortex development: A dividing (X) translocates its nucleus through cytoplasm from (Y) to (Z).

X = neuroblast;
Y = ventricular margin
Z = marginal zone

Then back to ventricular margin

17

Cerebral cortex development: The (X) cell divides at which border/zone?

X = neuroblast;

At ventricular margin

18

Cerebral cortex development: If plane of (X) during cell division is vertical, aka (symmetrical/asymmetrical) division, what's the fate of the daughter cells?

X = cleavage;
Symmetrical;
Both will become neuroblasts OR neurons

19

Neural precursors initially divide (symmetrically/asymmetrically). Gradually, the percent of (symmetrical/asymmetrical) divisions increases.

Asymmetrically; symmetrical

20

Cerebral cortex development: If plane of (X) during cell division is horizontal, aka (symmetrical/asymmetrical) division, what's the fate of the daughter cells?

X = cleavage;
Asymmetrical;

One will be neuroblast, the other a neuron/glial cell

21

Newly generated neurons migrate on (X) to (Y) surface, where they accumulate in a layer of cells called (Z).

X = radial glial fibers;
Y = pial
Z = cortical plate

22

First neuroblasts to differentiate will do so to become (X) cells.

X = radial glia

23

The most recently generate neurons are located at (base/superficial surface) of cortical plate.

Superficial surface

24

During development, cortical plate will become widely separated from (X) zone via formation of (Y) zone. This is due to (growth/invasion) of axons.

X = ventricular
Y = intermediate

Both! Growth of cortical plate axons and invasion of thalamic axons

25

The intermediate zone of the developing cortex will eventually become:

Subcortical white matter

26

During cortical development, migration of neurons differs based on which characteristic?

Whether they're excitatory or inhibitory

27

Inhibitory neurons undergo (X) migration, traveling on (Y) cells.

X = tangential (neurophilic);
Y = other neurons

28

Excitatory neurons undergo (X) migration, traveling on (Y) cells.

X = radial (gliophilic);
Y = radial glial

29

T/F: Cell generation/differentiation of cortex continues postnatally.

True

30

T/F: The cortical plate persists in adults.

False - becomes neocortex (cells in layers 2-6)

31

Fate of ventricular zone of cortex in adult.

Becomes ependymal layer and sub-ventricular zone

32

When neuronal migration is complete, many radial glia transform into (X).

X = astrocytes

33

The migrating neurons are (unipolar/bipolar) in form. They send out branches to form (dendrites/local plexuses) first.

Bipolar;

Both simultaneously

34

During development of cortex, there's extensive (over/under)-production of (X), which are then "pruned" (before/after) birth.

Over;
X = synapses;
After

35

T/F: There are many abnormal axonal projections during development.

True - subject to pruning

36

T/F: Association cortices are located immediately adjacent to their respectful primary areas.

True

37

All association areas adjacent to the primary areas are (unimodal/multimodal). The information is then transmitted to (unimodal/multimodal) (X) areas.

Unimodal;
Multimodal;
X = association

38

The Protomap theory proposes that:

Fate of neurons is determined very early, prior to migration into cortex

39

The Protocortex theory proposes that:

Cortical areas become specified as consequence of other factors (i.e. thalamic input)

40

The (X) theory suggests that a "map" of cortical areas is programmed within the neurons.

X = protomap

41

Ocular dominance columns receiving input from deprived eye become more narrow than those receiving input from functional eye. This supports (protomap/protocortex) theory.

Protocortex

42

Radical rewiring describes which phenomenon? It supports the (protomap/protocortex) theory.

Protocortex;

Cortex that would normally subserve one sensory function can assume a completely different role (in radical situation)

43

List the potential methods by which the number of cortical areas can expand.

1. Existing areas subdivide
2. New area appears and is maintained due to evolutionary advantage
3. New association cortex/area added onto existing cortex

44

(Neuro/glio)-genesis peaks first, so most (X) cells generated late in development, from (Y) zone.

Neurogenesis;
X = glial
Y = subventricular

45

T/F: Glial cells continue to be produced throughout life.

True

46

T/F: Myelination is complete in the second year of life in humans.

False - not until early adulthood

47

T/F: Neurogenesis has stopped postnatally.

False - continues through year 2 in humans