Flashcards in 10b: Cortex II (Development) Deck (47):
Which foramen connects lateral ventricles to the subsequent (X) ventricle?
X = third
Foramen of Monro
During development, the hemispheres first grow/expand in which direction(s) to form (X) lobe?
X = frontal lobe
During development, the hemispheres grow/expand upward/laterally to form (X) lobe/area?
X = parietal
During development, the hemispheres grow/expand posteriorly to form (X) lobe/area?
X = occipital
During development, the hemispheres grow/expand inferiorly to form (X) lobe/area?
X = temporal
The temporal lobe is marked during development by indentation called (X), which grows backwards. Inside the area of (X) is the future (Y).
X = lateral fissure;
Y = insula
List the commissures that appear during development, in the order which they appear.
2. Commissure of fornix
3. Corpus callosum
The anterior commissure connects:
Olfactory bulb and portions of temporal lobes
The thin wall of hemispheres extending vertically from corpus callosum to (X) is called (Y).
X = fornix
Y = septum pellucidum
T/F: Neuro-epithleium of cerebral hemispheres is much like the epithelium of rest of neural tube.
Neuroepithelium of cerebral hemispheres is (single/multi)-layered (X) type of epithelium.
X = pseudo stratified
Neuroepithelium of cerebral hemispheres has zones that differ based on:
Density of cells within zone
The marginal zone of cerebral hemisphere is near (X) and is cell-(sparse/dense).
X = the pia
The ventricular zone of cerebral hemisphere is near (X) and is cell-(sparse/dense).
X = ventricles
The (marginal/ventricular) zone of neuro-epithelium consists of (X) cells, which eventually divide/differentiate to generate (Y) of cortex.
X = neuroblasts;
Y = pyramidal neurons and glia
Cerebral cortex development: A dividing (X) translocates its nucleus through cytoplasm from (Y) to (Z).
X = neuroblast;
Y = ventricular margin
Z = marginal zone
Then back to ventricular margin
Cerebral cortex development: The (X) cell divides at which border/zone?
X = neuroblast;
At ventricular margin
Cerebral cortex development: If plane of (X) during cell division is vertical, aka (symmetrical/asymmetrical) division, what's the fate of the daughter cells?
X = cleavage;
Both will become neuroblasts OR neurons
Neural precursors initially divide (symmetrically/asymmetrically). Gradually, the percent of (symmetrical/asymmetrical) divisions increases.
Cerebral cortex development: If plane of (X) during cell division is horizontal, aka (symmetrical/asymmetrical) division, what's the fate of the daughter cells?
X = cleavage;
One will be neuroblast, the other a neuron/glial cell
Newly generated neurons migrate on (X) to (Y) surface, where they accumulate in a layer of cells called (Z).
X = radial glial fibers;
Y = pial
Z = cortical plate
First neuroblasts to differentiate will do so to become (X) cells.
X = radial glia
The most recently generate neurons are located at (base/superficial surface) of cortical plate.
During development, cortical plate will become widely separated from (X) zone via formation of (Y) zone. This is due to (growth/invasion) of axons.
X = ventricular
Y = intermediate
Both! Growth of cortical plate axons and invasion of thalamic axons
The intermediate zone of the developing cortex will eventually become:
Subcortical white matter
During cortical development, migration of neurons differs based on which characteristic?
Whether they're excitatory or inhibitory
Inhibitory neurons undergo (X) migration, traveling on (Y) cells.
X = tangential (neurophilic);
Y = other neurons
Excitatory neurons undergo (X) migration, traveling on (Y) cells.
X = radial (gliophilic);
Y = radial glial
T/F: Cell generation/differentiation of cortex continues postnatally.
T/F: The cortical plate persists in adults.
False - becomes neocortex (cells in layers 2-6)
Fate of ventricular zone of cortex in adult.
Becomes ependymal layer and sub-ventricular zone
When neuronal migration is complete, many radial glia transform into (X).
X = astrocytes
The migrating neurons are (unipolar/bipolar) in form. They send out branches to form (dendrites/local plexuses) first.
During development of cortex, there's extensive (over/under)-production of (X), which are then "pruned" (before/after) birth.
X = synapses;
T/F: There are many abnormal axonal projections during development.
True - subject to pruning
T/F: Association cortices are located immediately adjacent to their respectful primary areas.
All association areas adjacent to the primary areas are (unimodal/multimodal). The information is then transmitted to (unimodal/multimodal) (X) areas.
X = association
The Protomap theory proposes that:
Fate of neurons is determined very early, prior to migration into cortex
The Protocortex theory proposes that:
Cortical areas become specified as consequence of other factors (i.e. thalamic input)
The (X) theory suggests that a "map" of cortical areas is programmed within the neurons.
X = protomap
Ocular dominance columns receiving input from deprived eye become more narrow than those receiving input from functional eye. This supports (protomap/protocortex) theory.
Radical rewiring describes which phenomenon? It supports the (protomap/protocortex) theory.
Cortex that would normally subserve one sensory function can assume a completely different role (in radical situation)
List the potential methods by which the number of cortical areas can expand.
1. Existing areas subdivide
2. New area appears and is maintained due to evolutionary advantage
3. New association cortex/area added onto existing cortex
(Neuro/glio)-genesis peaks first, so most (X) cells generated late in development, from (Y) zone.
X = glial
Y = subventricular
T/F: Glial cells continue to be produced throughout life.
T/F: Myelination is complete in the second year of life in humans.
False - not until early adulthood