Flashcards in 12a: Hypothalamus Deck (46):
List the three zones of the hypothalamus, from medial to lateral.
1. Periventricular zone
2. Intermediate/medial zone
3. Lateral zone
List the levels/regions of hypothalamus, from rostral to caudal.
The periventricular zone of hypothalamus contains which nuclei?
1. Paraventricular (PVN)
2. Periventricular (PrVN)
3. Arcuate (Arc)
Which hypothalamic nuclei extend the entire (AP/ML) length of hypothalamus EXCEPT for (X) zone/region?
PrVN (periventricular) and LHA (lateral hypothalamic area)
X = preoptic region
The lateral zone of hypothalamus contains which nuclei?
1. SON (supraoptic)
2. LPN (lateral pre optic)
3. LHA (lateral hypothalamic area)
Functions of hypothalamus are largely related to (X). It does this by way of:
X = homeostasis
3. Limbic system/cortex
Hypothalamus controls species preserving behaviors by its connection with:
Hypothalamus controls BP and body T by its connection with:
Hypothalamus controls hormones by its connection with:
Hypothalamus controls physiological arousal/stress by its connection with:
Hypothalamus controls HR and respiration by its connection with:
Hypothalamus controls drives and emotion by its connection with:
Hypothalamus connects to the pituitary via the:
Seeing mammillary bodies is indicative of (anterior/medial/posterior) hypothalamus.
The preoptic region includes which hypothalamic nuclei?
MPN and LPN
The anterior, aka (X), region of hypothalamus includes which hypothalamic nuclei?
X = supraoptic
The tuberal region of hypothalamus includes which hypothalamic nuclei?
2. VM and DM
The posterior region of hypothalamus includes which hypothalamic nuclei?
(X) is the rostrally adjacent tissue of telencephalon that's continuous with (Y) area of hypothalamus.
X = basal forebrain;
Y = preoptic
The basal forebrain is interconnected with the (X) forebrain and is the source of (ascending/descending) (Y) afferents to (Z).
X = limbic;
Y = cholinergic;
Z = entire cerebral cortex
In a general sense, stimulation of (X) regions of hypothalamus leads to parasympathetic effects. And stimulation of (Y) regions leads to sympathetic effects.
X = anterior and medial
Y = posterior and lateral
Obesity has been shown to be a result of lesions to which part/nucleus of hypothalamus?
Starvation (due to aphagia) can result from lesions to which part/nucleus of hypothalamus?
In the forebrain, lesions of hypothalamus and (X) lead to serious disturbances of circadian rhythm. These depend upon internal generators in which hypothalamic nucleus?
X = nothing else (only hypothalamus)
Without (X) input, circadian rhythms continue on periodicity that's (Y) hours long.
X = retinal (light)
Y = slightly longer than 24
SCN nucleus in hypothalamus has (Y) receptors that responds to (Y) produced by (Z).
Y = melatonin;
Z = pineal gland
The (X) gland receives "visual" input (directly/indirectly) via its innervation from (Y).
X = pineal;
Y = superior cervical ganglion (sympathetic innervation)
T/F: Damage to superior cervical ganglion disrupts melatonin secretion by pineal gland.
Hypothalamic connections that support all its functions can be divided into which 5 main categories?
1. Endocrine Control
2. ANS control
3. Species-preserving behavior
4. Limbic/cortical connections
5. Circadian rhythm control
Feedback control of hypothalamic endocrine function is largely via receptors responsive to (X).
X = physiological state (body T, osmolarity, glucose, etc.) and hormones
List the tract(s) that allow hypothalamic control of endocrine function.
1. Supraoptico-hypophyseal tract
2. Tuberoinfundibular tract
The Supraoptico-hypophyseal tract is formed by axons of neurons in (X) nuclei of hypothalamus. They travel down (Y) to get to (Z).
X = PVN and SON
Y = pituitary stalk
Z = posterior pituitary
Which (hormones/NTs) are transported down the Supraoptico-hypophyseal tract? What's their effect/fate?
ADH and oxytocin;
Released directly into capillaries in posterior pituitary
The Tuberoinfundibular tract is a series of (short/long) axons from which hypothalamic nuclei? They produce (X).
X = releasing and inhibiting factors
In (Supraoptico-hypophyseal/Tuberoinfundibular) tract, the releasing and inhibiting factors, released by (X) into (Y), then drain into (Z).
X = neurons of Arcuate nuclei
Y = capillaries of median eminence;
Z = hypophyseal portal vein
The dorsal longitudinal fasciculus is an (efferent/afferent) path connecting (X) and (Y).
X = hypothalamus
Y = sympathetic and parasympathetic structures
Afferent input via DLF distrubites to (X) hypothalamic nuclei via ascending fibers from (Y) structures.
X = PrVN and PN
Y = parabrachial nucleus
The parabrachial nucleus is relaying information about (X) sensations to hypothalamic nuclei via (Y) tract.
X = pain (protopathic), taste, visceral sensation
Y = DLF
Efferent output via DLF arises from (X) nuclei.
X = PVN, SON, PrVN, LHA
Efferent fibers traveling via DLF project to:
3. Medullary autonomic centers
4. Brainstem parasympathetic nuclei
5. Thoracolumbar and Lumbosacral preganglionics
Supraoptico-hypophyseal tract consists of (magno/parvo)-cellular neurons.
Tuberoinfundibular tract consists of (magno/parvo)-cellular neurons.
Reward is processed as (high/low) levels of which NT?
In androgen insensitivity syndrome, genetic defect in (X) results in genetic (M/F) developing fully as (M/F).
X = androgen receptors;
Patient with androgen insensitivity syndrom has (testes/ovaries), circulating (testosterone/androgen), and (vagina/penis).
Testes, testosterone, but vagina (since testosterone receptors are absent)