12a: Hypothalamus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12a: Hypothalamus Deck (46):
1

List the three zones of the hypothalamus, from medial to lateral.

1. Periventricular zone
2. Intermediate/medial zone
3. Lateral zone

2

List the levels/regions of hypothalamus, from rostral to caudal.

1. Preoptic
2. Anterior/supraoptic
3. Tuberal
4. Posterior

3

The periventricular zone of hypothalamus contains which nuclei?

1. Paraventricular (PVN)
2. Periventricular (PrVN)
3. Arcuate (Arc)

4

Which hypothalamic nuclei extend the entire (AP/ML) length of hypothalamus EXCEPT for (X) zone/region?

AP;

PrVN (periventricular) and LHA (lateral hypothalamic area)

X = preoptic region

5

The lateral zone of hypothalamus contains which nuclei?

1. SON (supraoptic)
2. LPN (lateral pre optic)
3. LHA (lateral hypothalamic area)

6

Functions of hypothalamus are largely related to (X). It does this by way of:

X = homeostasis

1. ANS
2. Pituitary
3. Limbic system/cortex

7

Hypothalamus controls species preserving behaviors by its connection with:

Limbic system/cortex

8

Hypothalamus controls BP and body T by its connection with:

ANS

9

Hypothalamus controls hormones by its connection with:

Pituitary gland

10

Hypothalamus controls physiological arousal/stress by its connection with:

ANS

11

Hypothalamus controls HR and respiration by its connection with:

ANS

12

Hypothalamus controls drives and emotion by its connection with:

Limbic system/cortex

13

Hypothalamus connects to the pituitary via the:

Infundibular stalk

14

Seeing mammillary bodies is indicative of (anterior/medial/posterior) hypothalamus.

Posterior

15

The preoptic region includes which hypothalamic nuclei?

MPN and LPN

16

The anterior, aka (X), region of hypothalamus includes which hypothalamic nuclei?

X = supraoptic

1. SON
2. AN
3. PVN
4. SCN

17

The tuberal region of hypothalamus includes which hypothalamic nuclei?

1. Arc
2. VM and DM

18

The posterior region of hypothalamus includes which hypothalamic nuclei?

1. PN
2. MB

19

(X) is the rostrally adjacent tissue of telencephalon that's continuous with (Y) area of hypothalamus.

X = basal forebrain;
Y = preoptic

20

The basal forebrain is interconnected with the (X) forebrain and is the source of (ascending/descending) (Y) afferents to (Z).

X = limbic;
Ascending;
Y = cholinergic;
Z = entire cerebral cortex

21

In a general sense, stimulation of (X) regions of hypothalamus leads to parasympathetic effects. And stimulation of (Y) regions leads to sympathetic effects.

X = anterior and medial
Y = posterior and lateral

22

Obesity has been shown to be a result of lesions to which part/nucleus of hypothalamus?

Ventromedial nucleus

23

Starvation (due to aphagia) can result from lesions to which part/nucleus of hypothalamus?

Lateral hypothalamus

24

In the forebrain, lesions of hypothalamus and (X) lead to serious disturbances of circadian rhythm. These depend upon internal generators in which hypothalamic nucleus?

X = nothing else (only hypothalamus)

SCN

25

Without (X) input, circadian rhythms continue on periodicity that's (Y) hours long.

X = retinal (light)
Y = slightly longer than 24

26

SCN nucleus in hypothalamus has (Y) receptors that responds to (Y) produced by (Z).

Y = melatonin;
Z = pineal gland

27

The (X) gland receives "visual" input (directly/indirectly) via its innervation from (Y).

X = pineal;
Indirectly;
Y = superior cervical ganglion (sympathetic innervation)

28

T/F: Damage to superior cervical ganglion disrupts melatonin secretion by pineal gland.

True

29

Hypothalamic connections that support all its functions can be divided into which 5 main categories?

1. Endocrine Control
2. ANS control
3. Species-preserving behavior
4. Limbic/cortical connections
5. Circadian rhythm control

30

Feedback control of hypothalamic endocrine function is largely via receptors responsive to (X).

X = physiological state (body T, osmolarity, glucose, etc.) and hormones

31

List the tract(s) that allow hypothalamic control of endocrine function.

1. Supraoptico-hypophyseal tract
2. Tuberoinfundibular tract

32

The Supraoptico-hypophyseal tract is formed by axons of neurons in (X) nuclei of hypothalamus. They travel down (Y) to get to (Z).

X = PVN and SON
Y = pituitary stalk
Z = posterior pituitary

33

Which (hormones/NTs) are transported down the Supraoptico-hypophyseal tract? What's their effect/fate?

Hormones;
ADH and oxytocin;

Released directly into capillaries in posterior pituitary

34

The Tuberoinfundibular tract is a series of (short/long) axons from which hypothalamic nuclei? They produce (X).

Short;
Arcuate nuclei;

X = releasing and inhibiting factors

35

In (Supraoptico-hypophyseal/Tuberoinfundibular) tract, the releasing and inhibiting factors, released by (X) into (Y), then drain into (Z).

Tuberoinfundibular;
X = neurons of Arcuate nuclei
Y = capillaries of median eminence;
Z = hypophyseal portal vein

36

The dorsal longitudinal fasciculus is an (efferent/afferent) path connecting (X) and (Y).

Both (bi-directional);
X = hypothalamus
Y = sympathetic and parasympathetic structures

37

Afferent input via DLF distrubites to (X) hypothalamic nuclei via ascending fibers from (Y) structures.

X = PrVN and PN
Y = parabrachial nucleus

38

The parabrachial nucleus is relaying information about (X) sensations to hypothalamic nuclei via (Y) tract.

X = pain (protopathic), taste, visceral sensation
Y = DLF

39

Efferent output via DLF arises from (X) nuclei.

X = PVN, SON, PrVN, LHA

40

Efferent fibers traveling via DLF project to:

1. PAG
2. VTA
3. Medullary autonomic centers
4. Brainstem parasympathetic nuclei
5. Thoracolumbar and Lumbosacral preganglionics

41

Supraoptico-hypophyseal tract consists of (magno/parvo)-cellular neurons.

Magnocellular

42

Tuberoinfundibular tract consists of (magno/parvo)-cellular neurons.

Parvocellular

43

Reward is processed as (high/low) levels of which NT?

High;
DA

44

In androgen insensitivity syndrome, genetic defect in (X) results in genetic (M/F) developing fully as (M/F).

X = androgen receptors;
M; F

45

Patient with androgen insensitivity syndrom has (testes/ovaries), circulating (testosterone/androgen), and (vagina/penis).

Testes, testosterone, but vagina (since testosterone receptors are absent)

46

List the effects of pituitary tumor.

1. Visual problems
2. Arrested growth (children)
3. Sexual dysfunction (adults)
4. Mood/feeding changes