12b: Limbic System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12b: Limbic System Deck (75):
1

Limbic system is collection of structures in (telen/dien/mesen)-cephalon.

All tree

2

Functionally, all limbic system structures are implicated in experience or (X) of (Y).

X = expression
Y = emotion

3

Limbic lobe is composed of (telen/dien/mesen)-cephalic structures.

Telencephalic

4

The limbic lobe "borders" which ventricular structure?

Foramen of monro

5

The (X) structures of the limbic lobe are the (oldest/newest) cortical areas to emerge. List them.

Oldest;

1. Allocortex
2. Periallocortex
3. Proisocortex

6

Allocortical structures of limbic (lobe/system) have (X) number of layers. List these structures.

Lobe;
X = 3

1. Hippocampus
2. Primary olfactory cortex

7

Periallocortex structures of limbic (lobe/system) have (X) number of layers. List these structures.

Lobe;
X = 4-5

1. Entorhinal cortex
2. Parahippocampal gyrus
3. Cingulate cortex
4. Orbitofrontal cortex

8

The Proisocortex surrounds (X) and has (Y) number of layers. It contains the same structures as (Z), but the portions adjacent to (neocortex/ventricles).

X = Z = periallocortex
Y = 5
Neocortex

9

List the subcortical structures of the limbic system. These are (telen/dien/mesen)-cephalic structures.

Telencephalic;

1. Amygdala
2. Basal forebrain (cholinergic nuclei)

10

The basal forebrain is part of the (telen/dien/mesen)-cephalic structures of limbic system. It includes which nuclei?

Telencephalic;

1. Septal nuclei
2. Diagonal band nuclei
3. Nucleus basalis

11

List diencephalic components of limbic system, which have variety of (afferent/efferent) connections with telencephalic limbic lobe.

Both;

1. Hypothalamus (all nuclei)
2. Thalamus (anterior and MD nuclei)
3. Epithalamus (habenular nuclei)

12

List mesencephalic components of limbic system, collectively called (X).

X = limbic midbrain areas (LMA)

1. VTA
2. PAG

13

Olfactory receptor axons terminate on second-order (X) cells, which then project to (Y) via (Z) tract.

X = mitral
Y = primary olfactory cortex
Z = lateral olfactory tract

14

Axons of primary olfactory cortex project to (X).

X = amygdala and entorhinal cortex

15

T/F: Multimodal association areas project into the limbic system.

True

16

The largest area/lobe containing multimodal association areas is:

Prefrontal cortex

17

Lesions to (X) structure seems to affect "appropriateness" of (Y) responses and "associative learning"

X = amygdala
Y = emotional

18

Give an example of problem with sensory-sensory association, a symptom of lesion to (X).

X = amygdala

Inability to associate visual appearance of ball with its somesthetic feel

19

Lesion to (X) causes Kluver-Bucy syndrome.

X = amygdala

20

The amygdala receives afferent input from which sensory modalities? Via which structures, respectively?

All;
1. Sensory association cortices (vision, audition, somatic)
2. Parabrachial nucleus in pons (taste/visceral)
3. Primary olfactory cortex (olfaction)

21

Amygdala receives afferent input from which telencephalic structures of limbic system?

1. Basal forebrain
2. Orbitofrontal cortex
3. Entorhinal cortex/hippocampus

22

Amygdala receives afferent information about sexual drive from which structure?

Hypothalamus

23

(Like/unlike) striatum, amygdala receives (minimal/massive) input from entire cerebral cortex.

Like; massive

24

(Like/unlike) striatum, amygdala sends output to (X) nucleus of thalamus.

Unlike;
X = MD

25

Amygdala sends efferent projections to (anterior/posterior/medial/lateral) hypothalamus via which pathways? Star the longest one.

1. Medial hypothalamus via Stria terminalis*
2. Lateral hypothalamus via Ventral Amygdalofugal pathway

26

Stria terminalis pathway from (X) to (Y) follows the shape of which structure?

X = amygdala
Y = medial hypothalamus

Caudate

27

Ventral Amygdalofugal (VAF) pathway from (X) to (Y) travels (ventrally/dorsally) and gives off fibers that project to (Z).

X = amygdala
Y = lateral hypothalamus;
Dorsally;
Z = MD thalamus and basal forebrain

28

Aside from basal forebrain and hypothalamus, the amygdala has efferents to which cortices.

1. Prefrontal
2. Entorhinal (then hippocampus)
3. Sensory association cortices

29

Patient carries perfectly normal conversation one moment, but forgets the content/occurrence of the conversation a mere 5 min later. This is sign of damage to:

Hippocampus

30

Damage to hippocampus likely present with (retrograde/anterograde) amnesia.

Anterograde

31

Damage to hippocampus preserves (retrograde/anterograde) memories. This indicates that memories are stored (within/outside) hippocampal formation.

Retrograde;
outside (neocortex)

32

List the hippocampal afferents.

1. Multimodal and olfactory cortices (sensory)
2. Amygdala (viscero-sensory)
3. Cingulate cortex (nociception/emotional state)

33

Hippocampus sends efferents to which structure(s) via the fornix?

1. Basal forebrain
2. MB/Hypothalamus
3. Anterior Nucleus (thalamus)

34

Hippocampus sends efferents to which structure(s) via direct corticocortical projections?

1. Amygdala
2. Entorhinal cortex
3. Multimodal parahippocampal, cingulate, and prefrontal cortices

35

In LTP experiment for hippocampus, you'd place stimulating electrode in (X) and recording electrode in (Y).

X = entorhinal complex
Y = hippocampus

36

In the phenomenon called "Kindling", the threshold for producing (X) (increases/decreases/doesn't change) under what circumstances?

X = seizure;
Decreases;

Give seizure once per day over several days

37

The (X) phenomenon reflects learning/memory of behavior that's maladaptive.

X = Kindling

38

LTP/Kindling depend on (activation/suppression) of which receptor(s) in hippocampus?

Activation;
AMPA and NMDA

39

In LTP prolonged (stimulation/inhibition) of (X) receptors (de/hyper/re)-polarizes membrane enough to (Y).

Stimulation;
X = AMPA
Depolarizes;
Y = remove Mg block from NMDA channel

40

In LTP, additional pathways are activated by (X), which (enters/produced) by (Y). What's one of the key effects of these pathways?

X = Ca;
Enters;
Y = NMDA channels

Adds AMPA receptors to post-synaptic membrane

41

T/F: NMDA activation and Ca influx past certain level produces excitotoxic damage and hippocampal apoptosis.

True

42

The cingulate cortex is comprised of (X) cortices, which are linked rostrally to (Y) and caudally to (Z).

X = ACC and PCC
Y = Prefrontal cortex
Z = medial temporal lobe

43

The cingulate cortex is linked to its rostral/caudal attachments by (transversely/longitudinally)-running (Y).

Longitudinally;
Y = cingulum bundle

44

Neurons of (X) limbic system structure are particularly vulnerable to degeneration in Alzheimer's.

X = entorhinal cortex

45

The (X) in (Y) has been neurosurgically transected to treat intractable pain in terminal patients. This disconnects perception of pain from its emotional consequences.

X = cingulum bundle;
Y = ACC

46

The ACC is primarily involved in (X). The PCC is primarily involved in (Y).

X = registration of aversive emotion ("suffering")
Y = self-perception and assessment of relevance

47

The (neo/paleo)-spinothalamic tract projects to cingulate cortex via which structures?

Paleospinothalamic;

PAG and CM nucleus (thalamus)

48

The (X) nucleus of hypothalamus projects to cingulate cortex via its input to (Y).

X = periventricular;
Y = MD nucleus of thalamus

49

T/F: Hippocampus projects to cingulate cortex both directly and indirectly via (X).

True
X = mammillary bodies then anterior nucleus OR MD thalamus

50

T/F: Hypothalamus projects to cingulate cortex both directly and indirectly via (X).

False - only indirectly via:
X = MD nucleus

51

T/F: Amygdala projects to cingulate cortex both directly and indirectly via (X).

True;
X = MD nucleus

52

T/F: Multimodal/sensory association cortices projects to cingulate cortex both directly and indirectly via (X).

False - only directly via coritocortical input

53

List efferent output from cingulate cortex.

1. Entorhinal cortex (then hippocampus)
2. Amygdala
3. Multimodal association cortices

54

The (X) structure of limbic system is important for conscious evaluation of (aversive/rewarding) emotions/motivation.

X = orbitofrontal cortex
Both

55

Patients with lesion to (X) may be apathetic or "disinhibited" (expressing inappropriate emotions/behavior).

X = prefrontal cortex

56

Some afferents to prefrontal cortex come from (X) via (Y) nucleus of thalamus.

X = amygdala and hypothalamus
Y = MD

57

T/F: The cingulate cortex projects to the prefrontal cortex.

True

58

T/F: The amygdala projects to prefrontal cortex only indirectly through thalamic nucleus.

False - also directly

59

T/F: Hippocampus projects to prefrontal cortex via entorhinal cortex.

False - either directly or via hypothalamus

60

The (X) has been found to be almost the entire source of ACh in the cortex.

X = basal forebrain

61

Various drugs that (facilitate/inhibit) (X) NT have shown symptomatic improvements in Alzheimer's early stages.

Facilitate;
X = ACh

62

Amygdala sends (direct/indirect) efferents to basal forebrain via (X).

Indirect;
X = VAF pathway

63

Hippocampus sends efferents to basal forebrain via (X).

X = fornix

64

Hypothalamus sends efferents to basal forebrain via (X).

X = Medial forebrain bundle (MFB)

65

Limbic midbrain sends efferents to basal forebrain via (X).

X = Medial forebrain bundle (MFB)

66

Medial septal nucleus of (X) sends efferents to:

X = basal forebrain

Hippocampus and entorhinal cortex

67

Diagonal band nucleus of (X) sends efferents to:

X = basal forebrain

Amygdala and cingulate cortex

68

Nucleus basalis of (X) sends efferents to:

X = basal forebrain

Entire cortex (esp prefrontal)

69

T/F: Without activation of basal forebrain, stimulus events aren't properly coded for long-term storage.

True

70

List the two principal pathways that connect telencepahlic limbic structures with the LMA.

1. Medial forebrain bundle (MFB)
2. Habenulopeduncular tract

71

What's the "lateral forebrain bundle"?

The internal capsule

72

The MFB connects with (most/all) the nuclei of (X).

All;
X = hypothalamus

73

Rostrally, the MFB goes as far as which structures?

Amygdala and basal forebrain

74

The habenulopeduncular tract is a principal relay for (X) to (Y).

X = basal forebrain
Y = LMA

75

The (X) limbic structure is very sensitive to anoxia.

X = hippocampus