08a: Clinical and Misc Stuff Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 08a: Clinical and Misc Stuff Deck (24):
1

In general, which CN nuclei found in midbrain?

III: Oculomotor, Edinger-Westphal
IV: Trochlear

2

In general, which CN nuclei found in middle pons?

V: Chief sensory and motor

3

In general, which CN nuclei found in lower pons?

VI: Abducens
VII: Facial
VIII: Cochlear and Vestibular

4

In general, which CN nuclei found in medulla?

V: Spinal trigeminal nucleus
IX/X: Nucleus ambiguous
X: Dorsal and ventral motor nuclei of vagus
XII: Hypoglossal nucleus

5

Descending excitatory projections from motor cortices to brainstem via (X) tract and SC via (Y) tract.

X = corticobulbar
Y = corticospinal

6

Lower motor neurons are those that originate from:

Brainstem or SC

7

When lower motor neurons lose inhibitory input from (X), they do what comes naturally, which is to:

X = upper motor neurons

Continuously fire action potentials

8

A lower motor neuron with no inhibitory input will cause muscles to (X) and reflexes to (Y).

X = increase in contractions and tone
Y = be brisk

9

Weakness of muscle is sign of (upper/lower) motor neuron dysfunction.

Either/both

10

Segmental weakness of muscle is indicative of (upper/lower) motor neuron dysfunction.

Lower

11

Spasticity, aka (X), is indicative of (upper/lower) motor neuron dysfunction.

X = increased tone;

Upper

12

Hyporeflexia or areflexia is indicative of (upper/lower) motor neuron dysfunction.

Lower

13

Flaccidity is indicative of (upper/lower) motor neuron dysfunction.

Lower

14

Fasciculations is indicative of (upper/lower) motor neuron dysfunction.

Lower

15

T/F: You'd see muscle atrophy in both upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction.

False - likely not upper

16

As concentration of extracellular sodium decreases, the action potential curve changes in which way(s)? List the factors contributing to this change.

1. E(Na) decreases (lower amplitude)
2. DF(Na) decreases (smaller upward slope/slower depolarization)

17

Ouabain is a specific inhibitor of:

Na/K pump

18

T/F: At the peak of the action potential the driving force on Na+ ions is
0.

False

19

T/F: During the overshoot of the action potential there is a slight excess
of positive charge on the inside of the membrane.

True

20

T/F: At the resting potential, the current due to K+ ions is larger than that due to all other ions combined.

False

21

Around what voltage does relative refractory period begin?

Threshold (-55 mV or so)

22

In hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP), there is an issue in:

Na channel inactivation

23

T/F: At adrenergic nerve endings (varicosities), acetylcholine acts to
increase norepinephrine (NE) release.

False

24

Autonomic nervous system has (nicotinic/muscarinic) ACh receptors.

Both