09b: Thalamus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 09b: Thalamus Deck (50):
1

Ventricular structure separating R/L thalamus.

Third ventricle

2

(X) is the major part of the diencephalon. Which groups of structures lie near (X) and are also part of diencephalon?

X = thalamus

1. Epithalamus (dorsal/caudal)
2. Subthalamus (ventral)
3. Hypothalamus (below)

3

Major structures of epithalamus.

1. Pineal gland
2. Posterior commissure
3. Habenular nuclei

4

(X) is a midsaggital endocrine gland in diencephalon that secretes (Y).

X = pineal;
Y = melatonin

5

Melatonin secreted at high levels during (day/night) and is triggered by (X) signals.

Night
X = visual

6

(X) is a fiber tract, part of epithalamus, that connects (Y) with their contralateral homologues.

X = posterior commissure;
Y = oculomotor nuclei and pretectal nuclei

7

Formal name of the "thalamus" is:

Dorsal thalamus

8

The (X) is a fiber layer that divides thalamus into which main parts/compartments?

X = internal medullary lamina;

1. Anterior
2. Medial
3. Lateral

9

Anterior compartment of thalamus contains:

Anterior nucleus

10

Medial compartment of thalamus contains:

Mediodorsal nucleus

11

The (X) compartment of thalamus is divided into which tiers?

X = lateral

1. Dorsal
2. Ventral
3. Appended

12

Dorsal tier of (X) thalamic compartment contains (Y).

X = lateral;
Y = pulvinar nucleus

13

T/F: Pulvinar, aka "pillow", nucleus of thalamus stains poorly with myelin.

True

14

Ventral tier of (X) thalamic compartment contains (Y).

X = lateral
Y = VPL, VPM, VA, VL nuclei

15

(Rostrally/caudally) in thalamus, the VPL/VPM complex is replaced by VA/VL complex.

Rostrally

16

What are the Appended nuclei of the (X)?

X = thalamus (lateral compartment)

MGN and LGN

17

(MGN/LGN) is more caudal than (MGN/LGN) and can be observed laterally to (superior/inferior) colliculus.

MGN; LGN;
Superior

18

List categories of thalamic nuclei, based on functional organization.

1. Primary sensory nuclei
2. Motor relay nuclei
3. Association nuclei
4. Limbic nuclei

19

List the primary sensory nuclei of the thalamus. List respective modality carried by each.

1. LGN (Vision)
2. MGN (Audition)
3. VPL (Somatosensory for body)
4. VPM (Somatosensory for face)

20

List the motor relay nuclei of the thalamus. They carry info from (X) to (Y).

VA/VL Complex;

X = cerebellum and basal ganglia
Y = primary motor and premotor cortices

21

Cerebellar input to (X) nuclei in thalamus comes from which specific part of cerebellum?

X = VA/VL

Dentate nucleus

22

Basal ganglia, specifically (X), is source of input to (Y) nuclei in thalamus.

X = GP and SNpr (pars reticularis)
Y = VA/VL

23

Association nuclei of thalamus receive (low/high) processed signals from (X), and project to (Y).

High;
X = association regions of cerebral cortex
Y = (back to) cerebral cortex

24

List the association nuclei of the thalamus.

1. Pulvinar
2. Mediodorsal (MD)

25

List the limbic nuclei of the thalamus.

Anterior nucleus

26

Anterior nucleus receives some input from (X) via fornix and sends output to (Y).

X = hippocampus
Y = cingulate cortex

27

The "non-specific" nuclei of the thalamus are likely part of (X) system.

X = reticular activating

28

T/F: All sensory signals travel through thalamus before reaching cerebral cortex.

False - all except olfaction

29

The majority of neurons in thalamus are (short/long)-range, (excitatory/inhibitory) (X) neurons. The remainder are (Y) neurons.

Long; excitatory;
X = relay
Y = local, inhibitory (GABAergic) interneurons

30

Most output neurons of specific thalamic nuclei project to layer(s) (X) of cerebral cortex, with minor projections to layer(s) (Y).

X = 4
Y = 6

31

Most cerebral areas receiving thalamic input send feedback projections to (same/different) thalamic nuclei, arising from layer(s) (X).

The same;
X = 5 and 6

32

Number of corticothalamic projections was found to be (greater/smaller) than that of thalamocortical projections by which factor?

Greater; 10

33

Axons of (corticothalamic/thalamocortical) projections produce large, highly effective synaptic boutons. These were termed (modulators/drivers).

Thalamocortical; drivers

34

Reticular nucleus is made up entirely of (X) neurons. Its axons project into (Y).

X = inhibitory
Y = thalamus

35

Pulvinar nucleus of thalamus receives input from (X) and sends output to (Y).

X = superior colliculus, primary and non-primary visual cortices
Y = Parietal, Occipital, Temporal association cortices

36

MD nucleus of thalamus receives input from (X) and sends output to (Y).

X = amygdala
Y = Prefrontal cortex

37

Thalamic relay signal is modulated by which source(s) of inhibitory signals?

1. Dendrodendritic synapses
2. Reticular nucleus

38

T/F: Most of synaptic composition of LGN is from the retina.

False - from brainstem/cortical areas

39

Anterior limb of internal capsule is sandwiched between which structure(s)?

Lenticular nuclei and head of caudate

40

Posterior limb of internal capsule is sandwiched between which structure(s)?

Lenticular nuclei and thalamus

41

Anterior limb of internal capsule contains fibers that interconnect:

1. Anterior thalamic nucleus with cingulate gyrus
2. MD nucleus with prefrontal cortex
3. Frontal lobe with ipsilateral pontine nuclei

42

Genu of internal capsule contains fibers that interconnect:

1. Frontal lobe with ipsilateral pontine nuclei
2. VA/VL nuclei with motor/pre-motor cortices

43

Posterior limb of internal capsule contains fibers that interconnect/project:

1. Parietal lobe with ipsilateral pontine nuclei
2. VA/VL nuclei with motor/pre-motor cortices
3. Corticospinal (descending from motor cortex)
4. Somatosensory projections (to and from VPL/VPM)

44

Lenticulostriate arteries arise from (X) artery.

X = middle cerebral

45

Anterior limb of internal capsule blood supply via (X), which arise(s) from (Y).

X = Recurrent arteries of Heubner
Y = anterior cerebral artery

46

Posterior limb of internal capsule blood supply via (X), which arise(s) from (Y).

X = lenticulostriate, anterior choroidal, and thalamoperforator arteries
Y = middle cerebral, internal carotid, posterior cerebral arteries

47

Genu of internal capsule blood supply via (X), which arise(s) from (Y).

X = lenticulostriate arteries;
Y = middle cerebral artery

48

(X) arteries, which supply (Y) part(s) of internal capsule, are particularly prone to narrowing during hypertension.

X = lenticulostriate;
Y = genu and posterior limb

49

Input to anterior nucleus of thalamus.

1. Mammillary bodies via mammillothalamic tract
2. Hippocampus via fornix

50

Output from anterior nucleus of thalamus.

Cingulate cortex