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Flashcards in 1. Headache Deck (24)
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1

What are the sinister causes of a headache?

VIVID
Vascular
Infection
Vision threatening
Raised intracranial pressure
Dissection

2

What are the 4 vascular causes of a headache?

Subarachnoid haemorrhage
Haematoma
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis
Cerebellar infarct

3

What are the 2 infective causes of a headache?

Meningitis + encephalitis

4

What are 5 vision threatening causes of a headache?

Temporal arteritis
Acute glaucoma
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Pituitary apoplexy
Posterior leucoencephalopathy

5

What are the 5 causes of a raised intracranial pressure?

Space occupying lesion
Cerebral oedema
Hydrocephalus
Malignant hypertension
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

6

What are the 9 red flags to look out for in someone with a headache?

Decreased level of consciousness
Sudden onset worst headache
Seizure/ focal neurological defecit
No previous episodes
Reduced visual acuity
Headaches worse when lying down
Progressive persistent headache
Constitutional symptoms
PMH (malignancy/ immunosuppression)

7

What might a decreased level of consciousness suggest in someone with a headache?

SAH
Subdural haematoma: fluctuating consciousness
Extradural haematoma: altered consciousness post- lucid interval
Infection

8

What does a persistent headache, worse when lying down with early morning nausea suggest?

Raised intracranial pressure

9

What might a progressive persistent headache suggest?

Expanding space occupying lesion

10

What are constitutional symptoms?

Weight loss
Night sweats
Fever

11

What might a seizure or focal limb deficit suggest with a headache?

Intracranial pathology is more likely

12

What signs are seen in a 3rd nerve palsy? What is the headache associated cause of this?

Ptosis
Mydriasis
Eye deviated down + out
SAH due to ruptured PCOM aneurysm

13

What signs are seen in a 6th nerve palsy? What is the headache associated cause of this?

Convergent squint +/ or failure to abduct eye laterally
Mass or raised intracranial pressure

14

What are signs of horner's syndrome? What is the headache associated cause of this?

Partial ptosis
Anydrosis
Miosis
Carotid artery dissection
Cavernous sinus lesion

15

What does scalp tenderness and jaw claudication suggest?

Temporal arteritis

16

What are 7 causes of non sinister headache?

Tension type headache
Migraine
Sinusitis
Medication overuse headache
TMJ dysfunction syndrome
Trigeminal neuralgia
Cluster headache

17

What are characteristics of a tension type headache?

Bifrontal
More common in women

18

What are characteristics of trigeminal neuralgia?

More common >60s
Unilateral sharp facial pain, lasts seconds

19

What are the characteristics of a migraine?

Unilateral
Aura
More common in women
Sensitive to light

20

What are the features of sinusitis?

Constitutional symptoms + facial pain

21

What are the features of a cluster headache?

Unilateral pain over 1 eye
More common in men
Causes patients to wake up at night
Occurs in clusters every few weeks

22

What may you suspect if a patient over the age of 50 presents with a new onset headache?

Temporal arteritis

23

If you are concerned about carotid or cerebral artery dissection, what may you ask about?

Minor neck trauma

24

What signs are seen in a 12th nerve palsy? What is the headache associated cause of this?

Tongue deviation
Carotid artery dissection