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Flashcards in Past paper pop quiz 3 Deck (34)
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1

How do myasthenia gravis and Lambert eaton syndrome differ?

MG: Fatigue WORSENS with activity
LE: Fatigue IMPROVES with activity

2

Name a risk factor for bladder cancer

Exposure to dye-stuffs

3

List 3 drugs that damage the mucosa, thus worsening symptoms of reflux

NSAIDs
Aspirin
Steroids
Bisphosophonates

4

List 3 drugs that reduce lower oesophageal sphincter contraction, thus worsening symptoms of reflux

TCAs
Nitrates
Anticholinergic

5

What characterises Wolf Parkinson White syndrome?

Slurred upstroke + short PR interval on ECG
Due to bundle of Kent accessory pathway

6

In which COPD patients should long term oxygen therapy be considered in?

PaO2 < 7.3 kPa despite maximal tx
PaO2 7.3-8.0 kPa + 1 of: pulmonary HTN,
polycythaemia, peripheral oedema or nocturnal hypoxia
Terminally ill patients

7

What triad of features characterises acute mesenteric ischaemia?

Severe abdominal pain
Normal abdominal examination
Shock

8

What are the causes of acute mesenteric ischaemia?

Thrombosis (Atherosclerosis)
Embolism (emboli from AF)
Venous thrombosis (in hypercoaguable states)
Hypotension

9

What are the causes of chronic mesenteric ischaemia?

Low flow states e.g. HF + Atherosclerotic disease

10

How does chronic mesenteric ischaemia present?

Gut claudication (diffuse abdo pain, colicky, post prandial)
PR bleeding
Weight loss

11

Name 2 signs of perforation seen on AXR

Rigler's sign: air on both sides of bowel wall
Pneumoperitoneum: air under diaphragm

12

What may be seen on AXR in advanced mesenteric ischaemia?

Gassless abdomen
Thickening of bowel wall
Pneumatosis (air in bowel wall due to necrosis)

13

What can cause acute limb ischaemia?

Thrombus in situ
Embolus from AF

14

What should be given to patients with suspected acute limb ischaemia? What are the definitive treatment options?

IV Heparin
Embelectomy
Thrombolysis

15

What triad characterises granulomatosis with polyangitis?

URT involvement (Nosebleeds)
LRT involvement (Haemoptysis) Glomerulonephritis (haematuria + proteinuria)

16

Name a clinical feature of granulomatosis with polyangitis

Saddle nose

17

What antibody is strongly associated with granulomatosis polyangitis?

cANCA

18

What is Cor pulmonale?

right heart failure resulting from chronic pulmonary hypertension

19

List 3 causes of Cor pulmonale

Chronic lung diseases (e.g. COPD)
Pulmonary vascular disease (e.g. PE)
Neuromuscular disease (e.g. myasthenia gravis)

20

What condition causes telescoping of the digits?

Arthritis mutilans

21

What is the inheritance pattern of PCOS?

Autosomal dominant

22

What is the inheritance pattern of HOCM?

Autosomal dominant

23

List the 3 main visual field defects and location of the causative lesion

Mononoculear vision loss: optic nerve
Bitemporal hemianopia: optic chiasm
Homonomous hemianopia: post optic chiasm= optic tract

24

How do bacterial and viral conjunctivitis differ?

Bacterial: purulent discharge (‘yellow crust’)
Viral: only makes eyes water.

25

What scrotal lump transilluminates ?

Hydrocele

26

List 4 causes of dilated cardiomyopathy

Inherited
Alcohol abuse
Post-viral myocarditis
Thyrotoxicosis.

27

What occurs in restrictive cardiomyopathy? List 3 causes

stiff ventricles unable to relax + adequately fill with blood. Amyloidosis
Sarcoidosis
Haemochromatosis.

28

What 3 signs are indicative of HOCM?

Jerky pulse
Ejection systolic murmur
Double apex beat

29

What medication reduces the effects of alcohol withdrawal?

Chlordiazepoxide (a benzodiazepine)

30

Which TB antibiotic can cause peripheral neuropathy? How can this be prevented?

Isoniazid as causes Vitamin B6 deficiency
Give Pyridoxine