DPD2: Meeran- Histopathology, Addisons, TB Flashcards Preview

YR3: MM FC Ed. > DPD2: Meeran- Histopathology, Addisons, TB > Flashcards

Flashcards in DPD2: Meeran- Histopathology, Addisons, TB Deck (19)
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1

What is the commonest brain tumour?

Mets
from Lung in men
from breast in women

2

What is the most common primary benign and malignant brain tumour?

Benign: Meningioma
Malignant: Glioblastoma

3

In decreasing order, list 4 metabolic states most likely to cause a seizure?

Hypocalcaemia
Hyponatraemia
Hypoglycaemia
Hypokalaemia (more likely arrhythmia)

4

What measurements of 9am serum cortisol determine adrenal failure?

< 100 nmol/L is diagnostic 
> 550 nmol/L: adrenal insufficiency unlikely  

5

What measurement in a Short Synacthen Test suggests adrenal failure?

IM 250 mg tetrocosactrin (synthetic ACTH) 
Serum cortisol < 550 nmol/L at 30 mins indicates adrenal failure

6

If a biopsy of the adrenals shows multinucleated giant cells and caveating granulomata, what is the diagnosis?

Tuberculosis Addisons disease

7

What are the most common causes of Addisons disease?

UK: AI
Worldwide: TB

8

Name the 4 antibiotics used in treatment of tuberculosis

Rifampicin
Isoniazid
Pyazinamide
Ethambutol

9

Explain the regimen of antibiotic use in TB

4 drugs for 2 months as it takes 2 months to get the culture + sensitivity back
If sensitive to all 4, stop P+E as these have the most SEs (unless sensitivity shows resistance to RI, in which case, may choose 2 others)

10

What drugs are required for treating tuberculosis Addisons?

Prednisolone 5mg OD
Fludrocortisone 100mcg OD
Rifampicin is an enzyme inducer, so high dose pred is necessary

11

Describe pulmonary oedema

Abnormal leakage of fluids into lung interstitium + alveoli
Usually Symmetrical
Causes: LV failure, ARDS, fluid overload, neurogenic

12

What is a pleural effusion?

Fluid in the pleural space
Transudates: increased venous pressure
Exudates: increased leakiness of pulmonary capillaries

13

What causes a transudate pleural effusion?

Cardiac failure
Constrictive pericarditis
Fluid overload
Hypoproteinaemia (Cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome)

14

What causes a exudate pleural effusion?

High protein
Infection: Pneumonia, TB
Inflammation: RA, SLE
Malignancy: Mesothelioma, Lymphoma

15

What protein concentration defines transudates and exudates?

Transudate: < 25g/L
Exudate: > 35g/L

16

What are the most likely causative organisms of a community acquired pneumonia?

Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenza

17

Describe the appearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae on gram stain

Gram +ve diplococcus
Like "rugby balls" in pairs
Stains purple

18

Describe the appearance of Haemophilus influenza on gram stain

Gram -ve bacilli
Poor uptake of gram stain due to thin peptidoglycan wall

19

What drugs is often used to treat pneumonia?

Amoxicillin
(covers the 2 most common causes- strep pneumoniae + haemophilus influenzae)