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Flashcards in Past Paper Pop Quiz 2 Deck (48)
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1

What is Subclavian Steal syndrome?

Stenosis of subclavian artery proximal to origin of vertebral artery results in blood being "stolen" from the brain by retrograde flow down the vertebral artery + into the arm (usually when increased demand in arm)

2

List 3 causes of Subclavian steal syndrome

Cervical rib (compresses subclavian artery, less blood flows to brain)
Atherosclerosis
Takayasus arteritis

3

List 3 symptoms of subclavian steal syndrome

Syncope
Arm claudication
Vertigo

4

List 5 side effects of opioids

Constipation (can lead to confusion)
Respiratory depression
Nausea
Drowsiness
Pupillary constriction (MIOSIS)

5

What are the side effects of anti-muscarinic agents e.g. atropine?

Hot as a hare (Hyperthermia)
Dry as a bone (Dry Skin)
Red as a beet (Flushed)
Blind as bat (Mydriasis)
Mad as a hatter (Delirium)

6

What class of drugs may cause a dry cough?

ACEi

7

What side effect may result from use of B2 adrenergic receptor agonists?

Tremor

8

What drugs may cause a rash in glandular fever?

Amoxicillin
Ampicillin
Cephalosporins
Macrolides
Tetracyclines

9

What parameter defines severe hyponatraemia? What would this result in?

<120
Neuro symptoms: Seizures, Hallucinations, Confusion

10

What pathology produces the "sail sign" on CXR?

Left lower lobe collapse

11

What pathology produces the "golden S sign" on CXR?

Right upper lobe collapse

12

What is the immediate management approach for those with bowel obstruction?

Drip + suck

13

Where is the pathology in PBC? What antibody is associated with this?

Intrahepatic biliary ducts
Anti MITOCHONDRIAL antibody

14

Where is the pathology in PSC? What antibody is associated with this?

Intrahepatic + extrahepatic biliary ducts
pANCA

15

What skin manifestation arises in coeliac disease?

Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Symmetrical blistering, papulovesicular rash

16

What 3 antibodies may be present in coeliac disease?

Anti-TTG
Anti-endomysial
Anti-gliadin

17

What is the classic histological description of bowel affected by coeliac disease?

Subtotal villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia

18

What is found on CXR in heart failure?

Alveolar oedema
kerley B lines
Cardiomegaly
upper lobe Diversion
pleural Effusion

19

List 3 causes of air bronchograms

Pus in pneumonia
Fluid in pulmonary oedema
Fibrosed tissue in interstitial lung disease

20

What may be seen on blood film in multiple myeloma?

Rouleaux
Form due to high conc. plasma proteins (immunoglobulins) + lead to high ESR

21

In which disease would you find Granulocytes with absent granulation and hyposegmented nuclei?

Myelodysplastic syndrome

22

What would you find on a blood film in myelofibrosis?

Dacrocytes are teardrop-shaped cells

23

What is the best test to establish a diagnosis of TB?

Sputum sample for acid fast bacilli with Ziehl-Neelsen stain

24

What test determines exposure to TB?

Mantoux test (does not distinguish active + latent)

25

What is the most common type of urinary tract stone?

Calcium oxalate

26

What is the most appropriate
investigation to order when suspecting pancreatitis due to raised amylase?

Transabdominal ultrasound

27

What causes the Cushings reflex?

Raised ICP

28

What is the Cushings reflex?

High BP
Bradycardia
Irregular breathing

29

What is Beck's triad seen in?

Cardiac tamponade

30

What is Beck's triad?

Raised JVP
Muffled heart sounds
Low BP