Flashcards in MEERAN HTN Deck (15)
Describe the sounds heard when S3 is present
Lub- de- dub
What does S3 indicate? When does this occur?
Rapid ventricular filling
Dilated ventricle e.g. HF, Athletes (increase in vol)
Describe the sounds heard when S4 is present
Le- Lub- Dub
Ten- nesss- seee
What does S4 indicate? When does this occur?
Turbulent flow from atria contracting against non compliant, thickened ventricle
= Stiff or hypertrophic ventricle
Hypertensive patients (Tall R on ECG)
List 3 signs that may be found in a hypertensive patient?
LV hypertrophy (Heave)
S4 heart sound
List 4 non modifiable cardiovascular risk factors
Ethnic background (Asian/ Afro-carribean)
List 6 modifiable cardiovascular risk factors
What does presence of hypertensive retinopathy indicate?
HTN has been present for a long time
List 6 causes of HTN
Renal Artery Stenosis
Co-arctation of the aorta
Which 2 diseases should not really be tested for unless visible clinical features are seen on examination?
How does RAS cause hypertension?
Low pressure reaching JGA means renin is high
Causes production of more A1, more A2 + more aldosterone
Constricts efferent arteriole to maintain GFR
Keep on peeing
High aldosterone which increases BP, but pressure does not get through stenotic vessel, pressure remains low, thus renin stays high
What condition would cause hypertension with high aldosterone and low renin?
(high aldosterone suppresses renin)
What condition would cause hypertension with high urine catecholamines?
How do phaeos differ from conns tumours?
Pulsatile blasts of adrenaline cause episodic HTN
Large on imaging
Constant release of aldosterone causes constant HTN
Small on imaging