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Flashcards in 2. Confusion Deck (18)
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1

What 6 syndromes can cause confusion?

Delirium
Dementia
Mental impairment
Psychosis
Receptive Dysphasia
Expressive Dysphasia

2

What is delirium?

An acute impairment in cognitive ability with impaired consciousness

3

What is dementia?

Chronic progressive cognitive impairment with intact consciousness

4

What are the 10 components of AMTS?

What time is it?
What year are we in?
How old are you?
What building are you in?
Who am I? Who is that person (e.g nurse)?
What is your date of birth?
What year did WW2 end?
Who is the current PM?
Please count from 20 to 1
Can you remember the address I told you? (tell address at start)

5

What are 2 common infectious causes of confusion?

chest infection
urinary infection

6

Name a neoplastic cause of confusion

brain tumour

7

Name 2 traumatic causes of confusion

Subdural haematoma
Extradural haematoma

8

Name 3 drugs that may cause confusion

Diuretics
Digoxin
Thyroid medication

9

What are some of the signs of sepsis on examination?

Chest: dull percussion, crackles + bronchial breathing
Urine: suprapubic tenderness, cloudy urine
Cellulitis: red + warm
Meningitis: neck stiffness, photophobia + purpuric rash

10

What 3 investigations may you request for someone who presented with confusion?

Septic screen
Metabolic screen
ECG

11

What is mental impairment?

Permanent impairment of cognitive ability

12

What is psychosis?

Disorder of thought content/ perception (hallucination/ delusion)

13

What is receptive dysphasia?

Difficulty comprehending questions (Wernickes area damaged)

14

What is expressive dysphasia?

Difficulty verbalising an answer to questions (Brocas area damaged)

15

List 5 metabolic causes of confusion

Hypoxia
Hyercapnia
Hypoglycaemia
Hypercalcaemia
Sodium/ other electrolyte imbalance

16

List 4 causes of confusion that present with dilated, sluggish pupils

Drug overdose e.g. cocaine, TCAs
Severe hypoxia
Hypothermia
Postictal

17

List 2 causes of confusion that present with pin point, sluggish pupils

Opiate OD
Barbituate OD

18

What 8 signs should be looked for in a confused patient?

Consciousness
Septic focus
Pupils
Focal neurological signs
Needle track marks: IV drug abuse
Asterixis: Hypercapnia, Hepatic encephalopathy, uraemia
Breath for alcohol
Bitten tongue: Seizure