Flashcards in DPD: Amir Sam 5 Deck (46)
In what cases would you give IV or IM adrenaline?
IV: Cardiac arrest
What antibiotic would you give in add-on to amoxicillin to cover the atypical organisms causing pneumonia?
List 3 atypical organisms that cause pneumonia
What investigations are performed in patients with microcytic anaemia?
Haematinics (Ferritin, B12, folate)
Coeliac screen (TTG Ab)
Top (OGD) + Tail (colonoscopy)
Give 5 differentials for bloody diarrhoea
Infection: Infective colitis
Inflammation: UC/ Crohns (Younger pts)
Ischaemia: Ischaemic colitis (Older pts)
How do you treat a patient with AF within and after 48 hours of onset?
<48 hours: DC Cardioversion
>48 hours: Rate control (Digoxin/ Metoprolol) + Anticoagulation (Reduce risk of thromboembolism)
What is Trousseau syndrome? In which disease is it seen?
Acquired blood clotting disorder that results in migratory thrombophlebitis (inflammation of a vein due to a blood clot).
What is Troisier's sign? What does it indicate?
Presence of Virchows node= lymphadenopathy in supraclavicular fossa
Give 4 signs of portal hypertension
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (>250 WCC)
Give 3 causes of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS)
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
Give 3 haematological features of DIC
Low platelets + fibrinogen (as forming clots)
High PT + APTT (as used clotting factors)
High D-dimer + fibrin degradation products (as start breaking clots)
Give 3 haematological features of HUS
Low Hb + High BR (haemolysis)
Low platelets (using in clotting process)
Give 3 features of TTP
Give 3 hereditary causes of haemolytic anaemia
Red cell membrane (hereditary spherocytosis)
Enzyme deficiency (G6PD deficiency)
Haemoglobinopathy (SCD, Thalassemias)
Give 4 acquired causes of haemolytic anaemia
Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA)
What 2 features on a blood film indicate MAHA?
How do haustra and valvulae conniventes differ?
Haustra: In Large bowel. Don't traverse bowel
Valvulae conniventes: In Small bowel. Traverse small bowel
What do prominent valvulae conniventes indicate?
Small bowel obstruction
What are the 3 states hyponatraemia can arise in?
What occurs in hypovolaemic hyponatraemia? How may you detect this?
Hypovolaemia stimulates ADH secretion
Kidneys re-absorb salt + water
Low urine Na+
List 3 causes of euvolaemic hyponatraemia. How do you test for each of these?
Hypothyroidism: TFTs (low T4)
Adrenal insufficiency: Short synACTHen test
SIADH: plasma (low)+ urine (high) osmolality
How does cardiac failure cause hypervolaemic hyponatraemia? How may you detect this?
Less renal perfusion- body thinks its hypovolaemic, activates RAAS, increases aldosterone, increases water + Na+ retention
Low urine Na+ due to secondary hyperaldosteronism
List 3 causes of hypovolaemic hyponatraemia.
List 3 causes of hypervolaemic hyponatraemia.
List 2 sites of pathology where cause of SIADH may be found
CNS pathology: infection, malignancy, drugs
Lung pathology: infections, malignancy, drugs
List 5 drugs that can cause SIADH
List 4 conditions that onycholysis can be a feature of
Drugs (e.g. tetracyclines, OCP, diabetes drugs)
Reactive arthritis, Reiter’s syndrome
Infection (especially fungal)
Hyper + Hypothyroidism
Give 2 features of left ventricular hypertrophy on ECG. What valvular disease may this be a result of?
Deep S in V1
Tall R in V6
Which condition causes widespread saddle-shaped ST elevation in an ECG?