DPD: Amir Sam 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DPD: Amir Sam 5 Deck (46)
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1

In what cases would you give IV or IM adrenaline?

IV: Cardiac arrest
IM: Anaphylaxis

2

What antibiotic would you give in add-on to amoxicillin to cover the atypical organisms causing pneumonia?

Clarithromycin (Macrolide)

3

List 3 atypical organisms that cause pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Chlamydia pneumoniae
Legionella pneumophila

4

What investigations are performed in patients with microcytic anaemia?

Haematinics (Ferritin, B12, folate)
Coeliac screen (TTG Ab)
Top (OGD) + Tail (colonoscopy)

5

Give 5 differentials for bloody diarrhoea

Infection: Infective colitis
Inflammation: UC/ Crohns (Younger pts)
Ischaemia: Ischaemic colitis (Older pts)
Malignancy
Diverticulitis

6

How do you treat a patient with AF within and after 48 hours of onset?

<48 hours: DC Cardioversion
>48 hours: Rate control (Digoxin/ Metoprolol) + Anticoagulation (Reduce risk of thromboembolism)

7

What is Trousseau syndrome? In which disease is it seen?

Acquired blood clotting disorder that results in migratory thrombophlebitis (inflammation of a vein due to a blood clot).  
Pancreatic cancer

8

What is Troisier's sign? What does it indicate?

Presence of Virchows node= lymphadenopathy in supraclavicular fossa
Abdominal Malignancy

9

Give 4 signs of portal hypertension

Encephalopathy
Ascites
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (>250 WCC)
Variceal bleeds

10

Give 3 causes of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS)
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)

11

Give 3 haematological features of DIC

Low platelets + fibrinogen (as forming clots)
High PT + APTT (as used clotting factors)
High D-dimer + fibrin degradation products (as start breaking clots)

12

Give 3 haematological features of HUS

Low Hb + High BR (haemolysis)
Uraemia
Low platelets (using in clotting process)

13

Give 3 features of TTP

HUS
Fever
Neurological manifestations

14

Give 3 hereditary causes of haemolytic anaemia

Red cell membrane (hereditary spherocytosis)
Enzyme deficiency (G6PD deficiency)
Haemoglobinopathy (SCD, Thalassemias)

15

Give 4 acquired causes of haemolytic anaemia

AI
Drugs
Infection
Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA)

16

What 2 features on a blood film indicate MAHA?

Schistocytes
Anaemia

17

How do haustra and valvulae conniventes differ?

Haustra: In Large bowel. Don't traverse bowel
Valvulae conniventes: In Small bowel. Traverse small bowel

18

What do prominent valvulae conniventes indicate?

Small bowel obstruction

19

What are the 3 states hyponatraemia can arise in?

Hypovolaemia
Euvolaemia
Hypervolaemia

20

What occurs in hypovolaemic hyponatraemia? How may you detect this?

Hypovolaemia stimulates ADH secretion
Kidneys re-absorb salt + water
Low urine Na+
Postural hypotension

21

List 3 causes of euvolaemic hyponatraemia. How do you test for each of these?

Hypothyroidism: TFTs (low T4)
Adrenal insufficiency: Short synACTHen test
SIADH: plasma (low)+ urine (high) osmolality

22

How does cardiac failure cause hypervolaemic hyponatraemia? How may you detect this?

Less renal perfusion- body thinks its hypovolaemic, activates RAAS, increases aldosterone, increases water + Na+ retention
Low urine Na+ due to secondary hyperaldosteronism
Peripheral oedema

23

List 3 causes of hypovolaemic hyponatraemia.

Diarrhoea
Vomiting
Diuretics

24

List 3 causes of hypervolaemic hyponatraemia.

Cardiac failure
Cirrhosis
Nephrotic syndrome

25

List 2 sites of pathology where cause of SIADH may be found

CNS pathology: infection, malignancy, drugs
Lung pathology: infections, malignancy, drugs

26

List 5 drugs that can cause SIADH

SSRI
TCA
Opiates
PPIs
Carbamazepine

27

List 4 conditions that onycholysis can be a feature of

Drugs (e.g. tetracyclines, OCP, diabetes drugs)
Reactive arthritis, Reiter’s syndrome
Psoriais
Infection (especially fungal)
Trauma
Hyper + Hypothyroidism
Sarcoidosis, Scleroderma

28

Give 2 features of left ventricular hypertrophy on ECG. What valvular disease may this be a result of?

Deep S in V1
Tall R in V6
Aortic stenosis

29

Which condition causes widespread saddle-shaped ST elevation in an ECG?

Pericarditis

30

What investigation should you perform if you suspect renal colic?

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