1.06 - PNS - Neurology of Communication Flashcards Preview

Speech Anatomy & Physiology > 1.06 - PNS - Neurology of Communication > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1.06 - PNS - Neurology of Communication Deck (89):
1

Where do peripheral nerves originate?

(2)

Brainstem nuclei

Spinal Cord nuclei

2

The axons and dendrites of the brainstem are called? Of the spinal cord nuclei?

Cranial Nerves

Spinal Nerves

3

What does LMN stand for?

Lower Motor Neuron

4

Cranial Nerves are ______, ______, or ______.

Sensory or Motor

Motor Only

Sensory Only

5

Where are Cranial LMNs located?

Brainstem nuclei

6

Where do Cranial Nerves exit?

Through holes in the cranium (brain)

7

What do Cranial Nerves innervate?

Structures of the head and spine

8

Spinal Nerves are ________.

Sensory AND Motor

9

Where are Spinal LMNs located?

In the spinal cord

10

Where do Spinal Nerves exit?

Through holes in the vertebrae

11

What do Spinal Nerves innervate?

Structures of the limbs and torso

12

How many Cranial Nerves are there?

12

13

What is Cranial Nerve V? What is its focus?

Trigeminal

Chewing

14

What is Cranial Nerve VII? What is its focus?

Facial

Facial Expression

15

What is Cranial Nerve VIII? What is its focus?

Auditory-Vestibular

Hearing & Balance

16

What is Cranial Nerve IX? What is its focus?

Glossopharyngeal

Tongue & Palate

17

What is Cranial Nerve X? What is its focus?

Vagus

Pharynx & Larynx

18

What is Cranial Nerve XI? What is its focus?

Spinal Accessory

Neck

19

What is Cranial Nerve XII? What is its focus?

Hypoglossal

Tongue

20

What are the five Spinal Nerves

Cervical

Thoracic

Lumbar 

Sacral

Coccygeal

21

What Component of Speaking generates intent?

Cognitive-Linguistic Processes

22

What Component of Speaking generates verbal symbols?

Cognitive-Linguistic Processes

23

What Component of Speaking organizes verbal symbols?

Cognitive-Linguistic Processes

24

What Component of Speaking retains verbal symbols in memory?

Cognitive-Linguistic Processes

25

What Component of Speaking is primarily based in the frontal lobe?

Cognitive-Linguistic Processes

26

What Component of Speaking translates verbal symbols into sensorimotor score?

Sensorimotor Planning/Programming

27

What Component of Speaking designates muscle activation patterns?

Sensorimotor Planning/Programming

28

What Component of Speaking stores expected feedback?

Sensorimotor Planning/Programming

29

What Component of Speaking is based in Broca's Area?

Sensorimotor Planning/Programming

30

What Component of Speaking is based in the Prefrontal Cortex?

Sensorimotor Planning/Programming

31

What Component of Speaking is based in the Premotor Area?

Sensorimotor Planning/Programming

32

What Component of Speaking activates motor neurons?

Neuromuscular Execution

33

What Component of Speaking creates muscle contractions?

Neuromuscular Execution

34

What Component of Speaking generates movement?

Neuromuscular Execution

35

What Component of Speaking generates and regulates subglottal pressure?

Neuromuscular Execution

36

What Component of Speaking moves the articulators to modulate position, shape, cross-sectional area, constrictions over time?

Neuromuscular Execution

37

What Component of Speaking creates acoustic output?

Neuromuscular Execution

(Speech)

38

What Component of Speaking is based in the Motor Cortex?

Neuromuscular Execution

39

The UMN are _______ whose pathway goes from _________ or _________.

Nerve Tracts

Cortex to Cranial Nerves

Cortex to Spinal Nerves

40

The LMN are ________. They are either _____ or _____. Their final destination is ______.

Nerves

Cranial (come from brainstem)

Spinal (come from spinal cord)

Muscle

41

The Corticospinal tract starts with ______.

The motor nuclei in the cortex

42

Where does the Corticospinal Tract go after it leaves the motor nuclei in the cortex?

Axon pathways for the Corona Radiata

43

Where does the Corticospinal Tract go after the Corona Radiata?

The fibers consolidate into the Internal Capsule

44

Where does the Corticospinal Tract go after the Internal Capsule?

The fibers descend to the level of Medulla

45

Where does the Corticospinal Tract go after the Medulla?

Most will decussate at the Pyramids of the Medulla

46

Where does the Corticospinal Tract go after it decussates at the Pyramids of the Medulla?

Descends the contralateral spinal cord as either the Lateral or Anterior Horns

47

Where does the Corticospinal Tract go after it descends the contralateral spinal cord (Lateral/Anterior Horns)?

It synapses on the spinal nerve nuclei (grey matter)

48

What is the ultimate pathway of the Corticospinal Tract?

From Cortex to Spinal Nerve Nuclei

49

Where is the Corticobulbar Tract located?

In the brainstem

50

What is the ultimate pathway of the Corticobulbar Tract?

From the Cortex to the Cranial Nerve Nuclei

51

Where does the Corticobulbar Tract originate?

With the motor nuclei in the cortex

52

Where does the Corticobulbar Tract go after it leaves the motor nuclei in the cortex?

To to axon pathways in the Corona Radiata

53

Where does the Corticobulbar Tract go after it leaves the Corona Radiata?

The fibers consolidate into the Internal Capsule

54

Where does the Corticobulbar Tract go after it leaves the Internal Capsule?

The fibers descend to the level of the brainstem

55

What happens once the Corticobulbar Tract reaches the brainstem?

Some fibers decussate but others do not

56

What happens once some of the fibers of the Corticobulbar Tract have decussated?

They synapse on the Cranial Nerve Nuclei (grey matter)

57

Are the Corticospinal and Corticobulbar Tracts direct or indirect pathways?

Direct

58

Where are the UMN nuclei located?

In the cortex

59

Where are the LMN nuclei located?

In the Brainstem (Cranial Nerves) In the Spinal Cord (Spinal Nerves)

60

Does the Nervous System tell muscles when to contract relative to other muscles (synergy)?

Yes

61

Does the Nervous System tell muscles how strongly to contract and for how long to stay contracted?

Yes

62

Does the Nervous System tell muscles when NOT to contract, or when to stop contracting?

Yes

63

Does the Nervous System tell muscles set the patterns of contractions that will meet the goals of the message (inflection, speaking rate, etc)?

Yes

64

Does the Nervous System require an interactive system?

Yes

65

Does the Nervous System scale movements?

Yes

66

Does the Nervous System update commands based on feedback (auditory, kinesthetic, air pressures, etc)?

Yes

67

Does the Nervous System coordinate movements in time and space to achieve the desired acoustic output?

Yes

68

What does a Direct Neural Pathway accomplish?

Muscle Activation

69

What is the Direct Neural Pathway?

UMN (Cortex) ->

LMN (Nerve) ->

Muscle

70

What does a Indirect Neural Pathway accomplish?

Regulating Muscle Tone

71

What is the Indirect Neural Pathway?

Subcortical Structures UMN (Cortex)  ->   [work in unison]

LMN (Nerve) ->

Muscle

72

What sort of muscle is innervated by Indirect Neural Pathways?

Smooth muscle

73

What does the Basal Ganglia Circuit accomplish?

Scaling Motor Programs (How big/small to make them)

74

What is the Basal Ganglia Circuit pathway?

Cortex (UMN) ->

Basal Ganglia ->

Cortex (UMN) ->

Nerve (LMN) ->

Muscle

75

What does the Cerebellar Circuit accomplish?

Monitoring & adjusting movements

76

What is the Cerebellar Circuit pathway?

Cortex (UMN) ->

Cerebellum ->

Cortex (UMN) ->

Nerve (LMN) ->

Muscle

77

Both the Basal Ganglia & Cerebellar Circuits _________ before "___________".

Communicate with multiple brain regions

Giving the indirect pathway their information

78

The Basal Ganglia & Cerebellar Circuits influence movement but never _______.

Descend to the LMN

79

Label the following:

A = Motor Area of the Cortex

B = Internal Capsule

C = Geniculate Fibers

D = Decussation of Pyramids

E = Anterior Cerebrospinal Fasciculus

F = Lateral Cerebrospinal Fasiculus

G = Anterior Nerve Roots

80

Label the following:

A = Glossalpharyngeal Nerve (IX)

B = Vagus Nerve (X)

C = Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)

D = Accessory Nerve (XI)

E = First Cervical Spinal Nerve

F = Spinal Root of Accessory Nerve (XI)

81

Label the following:

A = Cervical Vertebrae

B = Thoracic Vertebrae

C = Lumbar Vertebrae

D = Sacral Vertebrae

82

What is this?

Trigeminal Nerve

83

What number is the Trigeminal Nerve? What is its focus?

V

Chewing

84

What number is the Facial Nerve? What is its focus?

VII

Facial Expression

85

What number is the Auditory-Vestibular Nerve? What is its focus?

VIII

Hearing & Balance

86

What number is the Glossopharyngeal Nerve? What is its focus?

IX

Tongue & Palate

87

What number is the Vagus Nerve? What is its focus?

X

Pharynx & Larynx

88

What number is the Spinal Accessory Nerve? What is its focus?

XI

Neck

89

What number is the Hypoglossal Nerve? What is its focus?

XII

Tongue