2.01 - Respiration for Speech Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.01 - Respiration for Speech Deck (91):
1

What are the three components of Speech Production?

SOURCE - Respiratory System

SOUND - Phonatory System

SOUND SHAPER - Articulatory System

2

Does anatomy bend to the laws of physics?

Yes

3

Gases are comprised of molecules that are in ___________. 

Constant motion

4

Pressure refers to the ______ of the gas over a ______.

Force

Given surface area

5

What is the formula for Pressure?

P = force / area

6

What is Brownian Movement?

That the molecules of gases are in constant movement

7

What is Boyle's Law?

For a gas at a given temperature, PRESSURE and VOLUME are inversely proportional to each other

When volume goes up, pressure goes down.

8

What is the formula for Boyle's Law?

P x V = K

9

What does positive pressure do?

Pushes

10

What is another word for negative pressure?

Vacuum

11

Equilibrium is the stae of rest or balance due to the ______ of ______.

Equivalent effects

Opposing forces

12

Gases and fluids molecules move from areas of _______ to areas of _______.

High Pressure

Low Pressure

13

When a structure is stretched beyond its resting state, it has the ___________.

Kinetic energy for recoil

14

What is recoil?

(2)

Returning to the resting state

Something stretched wants to relax

15

Is recoil active or passive?

Passive

16

During Inhalation, what three things happen?

The lungs become larger (more volume)

Lung pressure decreases (Negative pressure)

Air flows inward from the atmosphere

17

During Exhalation, what three things happen?

The lungs become smaller (less volume)

Lung pressure increases (Positive pressure)

Air flows outward.

 

18

During Inhalation ________ and ________.

Volume increases

Pressure decreases

19

During Exhalation ________ and ________.

Volume decreases

Pressure increases

20

What is Negative Pressure?

When pressure decreases

21

What is Positive Pressure?

When pressure increases

22

What are the four components of the Respiratory Pump?

Active forces (muscular)

Passive forces (nonmuscular, recoil, gravity)

Air itself (behavior of gas & pressure, physics)

Air passageways (pulmonary structures)

23

Do the lungs attach to the ribs?  What does this do?

Yes

Expanding the ribs expands the lungs

24

What are the upper seven ribs called?  What do they attach to?

True Ribs

Sternum via cartilige

25

What are the 8-10 ribs called?  What do they attach to?

False ribs

They attach to a cartiligous extension than then attaches to sternum

26

What are the last 2-3 ribs called?  Why?

Floating ribs

They do not attach to cartilige or the sternum

27

The Sacral Vertebrae are _____.

Fused

28

How many Coccyx Vertebrae are there?

One

29

What does the word "foremen" refer to?

A hole

30

What is the TOP of the Bony Box?

The Pectoral Girdle

31

What comprises the Pectoral Girdle?

(3)

Clavicles

Scapulae

Humerus

32

What is the BOTTOM of the Bony Box?

Pelvic Girdle

33

What comprises the Pelvic Girdle?

(5)

Illium

Ischium

Pelvic Bone

Sacrum

Coccyx

34

What is the FRONT of the Bony box?

(2)

Sternum

Anterior apects of the ribs

35

What is the SIDE of the Bony Box?

Ribs

36

What is the BACK of the Bony Box?

Vertebral column

37

What is the Diaphragm?

(2)

A large, domed-shaped muscle

It separates the lungs from the abdominal cavity

38

What is the single, most important muscle for Inspiration?

Diaphragm

39

Withough the diaphragm, is it EXTREMELY difficult to to breathe and even more difficult to speak?

Yes

40

When the Diaphragm contracts, the lung area ______.  This ______ pressure in the lungs relative to the _________.

Increases

Decreases

Atmosphere

41

What is happening when the Diaphragm is maximally DOMED?

It is continuing speech or exhalation past the normal air capacity

42

What is happening when the Diaphragm is maximally FLATTENED?

Inhalation

43

How many attachements does the diaphram have?

LOTS!

44

When does the diaphragm become completely flat?

Never.  It is aways domed/rounded.

45

Where does the abdominal cavity fit into the bony box?

It starts at the last ribs and ends at the pelvis

46

What does URI stand for?

Upper Respiratory Infection

47

How many lobs does the LEFT lung have?

2 (due to the heart)

48

How many lobs does the RIGHT lung have?

3

49

Emphysema causes the walls of the ______  to be destroyed.

Alveolar septae

50

What are the Alveolar Septae?

Walls of air sacs

51

Emphysema causes the alveoli become ______, ______ and __________.

Larger

Irregular

Decrease in number

52

Emphysema causes the __________ to be impaired and the ability to__________ is poor.

Diffusion of O2 and CO2 

Exchange gases

53

How does smoking increase wrinkles?

Decreased collagen

Decreased elasticity of tissues.

54

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Superior Vertebral Notch

B = Superior Costal Facet

C = Inferior Costal Facet

D = Inferior Vertebral Notch

E = Spinous Process

F = Transverse Costal Process

G = Pedicle

H = Superior Articular Facet

55

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Spinous Process

B = Transverse Process

C = Superior Articular Process

D = Corpus

E = Superior Costal Facet

F = Transverse Costal Facet

G = Vertebral Foremen

56

What goes into the Vertebral Corpus?

Spinal Cord

57

What goes into the Costal Facets?

Ribs

58

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Manubrosternal Angle

B = Articulating Facets (for other ribs)

C = Corpus Sterni

D = Ensiform Process

59

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Suprasternal Notch

B = Clavicle Articular Facet

C = Manubrium Sterni

D = First Rib Articular Facet

60

What is another name for the Ensiform Process?

Xiphoid Process

61

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Right Phrenic Nerve

B = Left Phrenic Nerve

C = Mediastinum

62

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Pubis

B = Pubic Symphysis

C = Ischium

D = Ilium

E = Iliac Crest

63

What goes through the hole between the Ischium and the Pubis?

Nerves & vascular tissue

64

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Sacrum

B = Coccyx

65

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Breathing Apparatus

B = Pulmonary Apparatus

C = Chest Wall

D = Pulmonary-Chest Wall Unit

66

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Opening for Vena Cava (Vein)

B = Central Tendon

C = Opening for Aorta

D = Vertebral Attachment

E = Rib Attachment

F = Opening for Esophagus

G = Sternal Attachement

67

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Maximally Domed

B = Maximally Flattened

C = Resting Shape

68

How does the Diaphragm move?  What is this part?

Q image thumb

Up and down, to the sides, FRONTWARDS, to the back

Central tendon

69

What connects the diaphragm to the spine?

Central tendon

70

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Vertebral column

B = Scapula

C = Cervical Verebrae

D = Thoracic Vertebrae

E = Lumbar Vertebrae

F = Sacral Verebrae

G = Coccygeal Vertebrae

71

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Clavicle

B = Humerus

C = Ribs

D = Pelvic Girdle

E = Costal Cartilage

F = Sternum

72

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Blood from tissue

B = Gas

C = CO2

D = O2

E = Blood to Tissue

73

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Upper Respiratory Tract

B = Lower Respiratory Tract

74

Label the following:

Q image thumb

A = Nasal Cavity

B = Pharynx

C = Larynx

D = Trachea

E = Primary Bronchi

F = Lungs

75

What are the Active forces involved in the Respiratory Pump?

Muscular

76

What are the Passive Forces involved in the Respiratory Pump?

(3)

The ones that are nonmuscular

Recoil

Gravity

77

How is the Air Itself involved in the Respiratory Pump?

(2)

Behavior of gas & pressure

Physics

78

How are the Air Passageways involved in the Respiratory Pump?

Pulmonary structures

79

What are the Bronchiole?

The branches in the lungs that hold the aveoli

80

What is the capillary bed?

(2)

It wraps around aveoli

Allows for gas exchange

81

What is Intraoral Pressure?

The pressure in the mouth

82

What is Subglottal Pressure?

The pressure below the vocal folds

83

What is Alveolar Pressure?

(2)

The pressure in the aveoli

The pressure in the lungs

84

What is Intrapleural Pressure?

The pressure between the pleural linings

85

What is a Spirogram?  What is on each axis?

(3)

A graph of what's going on in the lungs

X=Axis = Time

Y-Axis = Lung Volume

86

When the diaphragm relaxes it ________.

Goes up and back

87

What four things does the diaphragm connect to?

Spine

Ribs

Sternum

Vertebrae

88

What is relaxation pressure?

Recoil of muscle and tissue

89

What is relaxation pressure  proportional to?

Lung volume

Alveolar pressure

90

What is a Surfactent?

The lubricating substance that connects the pleura and causes them to act as one

91

What is Pnemothorax?

The air between the pleura