5:00 Swallowing Flashcards Preview

Speech Anatomy & Physiology > 5:00 Swallowing > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5:00 Swallowing Deck (63):
1

Where is the oral vestibule?

The space between the lips and teeth

2

What are the two kinds of aspiration?

(2)

Food goes up the nose

Food goes down the lungs

3

What is silent aspiration?

Food goes down the lungs without the person realizing it.

4

What is the difference between striated & smooth tissue?

Striated is voluntary, smooth is involuntary

5

What part of the esophagus is composed of striated muscle?

The upper third

6

What part of the esophagus is composed of smooth muscle?

The lower two thirds

7

What innervates the esophagus?

Vagus & sympathetic divisions of the nervous system

8

Vagal activity increases ______.

Esophageal activity

9

What makes up the Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES)?

(2)

Cricoid lamina

Cricopharyngeal muscle fibers (inferior constrictor)

10

What does the Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES) do?

(2)

Prevents air from entering the esophagus during respiration

Prevents material from reflexing back up the esophagus and into the pharynx

11

What does the Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) do?

Prevents gastric reflux

12

What are the four phases of swallowing?

Oral Prep Phrase

Oral Transport Phase

Pharyngeal Transport Phase

Esophageal Transport Phase

13

What is the Oral Prep Phase?

(4)

Food enters mouth and is chewed

Bolus is prepped

Saliva is incorporated into food

Liquid is collected for drinking

14

What is the Oral Transport Phase?

Food is moved from the front of the mouth to the back of the mouth

15

What is the Pharyngeal Transport Phase?

(2)

Food is transferred to the pharynx towards the esophagus

The velopharyngus, vocal folds, and epiglottis are closed

16

What is the Esophageal Transport Phase?

Food is transferred into the esophagus

17

Which swallowing phases are voluntary?

(2)

Oral Prep Phrase

Oral Transport Phase

18

Which swallowing phases are involuntary?

(2)

Pharyngeal Transport Phase

Esophageal Transport Phase

19

What happens to the tongue during the Oral Prep Phase?

It is dished and moves posteriorly

20

What are the three types of salivary glands?

Submandibular (under jaw)

Sublingual (under tongue)

Parotid

(There are other smaller glands)

21

What does saliva do?

(4)

Maintains oral moisture

Reduces tooth decay

Assists in digestion

Holds bolus together

22

What are the two different kinds of saliva?

Viscous (watery)

Serous (thick & mucousy)

23

What happens during the Oral Phase?

(2)

Bolus is transported from anterior mouth to mid oral cavity via tongue

Tongue touches velum & faucial pillars triggering the velum

24

What triggers the Pharyngeal Phase?

The bolus passing over the back of the tongue

25

What happens during the Pharyngeal Phase?

(2)

Airway is protected

Bolus is moved

26

How is the airway protected during the Pharyngeal Phase?

(4)

Velopharynx is closed

Hyo-larynx is pulled up and forward

Vocal folds close

Eversion of the epiglottis

27

What makes the bolus move during the Pharyngeal Phase?

(3)

Peristalsis - progressive contraction of the pharynx

Pressure behind the bolus

Lubrication- serous saliva by the parotid glands

28

What is the path of the bolus during the Pharyngeal Phase?

(3)

It moves from the back of the tongue and valleculae

It separates into two equal parts and course around larynx & epiglottis through the pyriform sinuses

The two halves join once they reach the esophagus

29

What happens during the Esophageal Phase?

(4)

Upper esophageal sphincter is relaxed

Generation of low pressure in front of the bolus

Esophageal peristalsis (coursing contraction & relaxation

Dilation of the lower esophageal sphincter

30

What happens to airflow when we swallow?

We slightly exhale then have a period of apnea

31

What three things are unique to swallowing in the infant?

Rooting reflex

Sucking reflex

Breathing while swallowing

32

How many times does a baby suck before swallowing?

3-4

33

What happens to the velum while an infant is sucking?

It locks between the epiglottis & the tongue

34

What controls the voluntary phases of swallowing?

Cortex

35

What controls the involuntary phases of swallowing?

(3)

Central pattern generator

Pre-programmed sequential commands

Medulla

36

What transmits sensory information from the swallowing areas?

Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (NTS)

37

What transmits motor information to the swallowing areas?

Nucleus Ambiguus (NA)

38

The _______ and ______ tracts carry inputs from cortical motor centers in the frontal lobe and converge on ___________ in the lower brainstem.

Corticospinal

Corticobulbar

Central Pattern Generators

39

What do descending neural tracts do?

Carry motor info

40

What descending neural tracts carry information from the medulla for swallowing?

Nucleus Ambiguus (NA)

41

What nerves carry motor information for swallowing?

(5)

Trigeminal (CN V)

Facial (CN VII)

Glossopharyngeal (CN IX)

Vagus (CN X)

Hypoglossal (CN XII)

42

What does the Trigeminal (CN V) do for swallowing?

(2)

Innervates muscles of mastication

Facial sensations

43

What does the Facial (CN VII) innervate for swallowing?

(2)

Innervates Lip & Buccal muscles

Sensory for front 2/3 of tongue

44

What does the Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) & Vagus (CN X) innervate for swallowing?

(3)

Innervates Palate, Pharynx, Esophagus, Larynx, & Respiratory control centers

Sensory for back 1/3 of tongue

Sensation for Palate, Pharynx, & Larynx

45

What does the Hypoglossal (CN XII) innervate for swallowing?

Muscles of the tongue

46

What do ascending neural tracts do?

Carry sensory information to the brain

47

What ascending neural tracts carry information to the medulla for swallowing?

Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (NTS)

48

What nerves carry sensory information for swallowing?

(4)

Trigeminal (CN V)

Facial (CN VII)

Glossopharyngeal (CN IX)

Vagus (CN X)

49

What happens in the Central Pattern Generator?

(3)

Input arrives from NTS and is summed

If stimulus threshold is reached, NTS organizes the preprogrammed sequential spatial-temporal sequence of swallow

Sends info to NA to execute motor sequence

50

What are the two categories of variables that influence swallowing?

(2)

Bolus characteristics

Swallow mode

51

What are the three characteristics of the Bolus that influence swallowing?

(3)

Consistency

Volume

Taste & temperature

52

What are the three characteristics of the Swallow Mode that influence swallowing?

Single swallow vs. sequential swallows

Mealtime eating vs. swallowing during a swallow test

Cued swallows vs. uncued

53

What are two swallowing disorders?

Dysphagia

Orofacial mylofunctional disorder (OMD)

54

What is Dysphagia?

Difficulty in swallowing secondary to paralysis/paresis

55

What phase is affected in Dysphagia?

Pharyngeal

56

What can cause Dysphagia?

(4)

Aging

Degenerative neural disease

Stroke

Trauma

57

What can be used to diagnose Dysphagia?

(3)

Barium swallow

Modified barium swallow

FEES

58

What is OMD?

Difficulty in swallowing secondary to dysfunctional muscle patterns and oral habits

59

What is OMD also known as?

(4)

Tongue thrust

Immature swallow

Anterior positioning of tongue

Anterior tongue carriage

60

What six characteristics define OMD?

Abnormal thumb, finger, lip, and tongue sucking habits

Inappropriate lip-open resting position

Forward interdental rest posture of tongue

Forward rest position of the tongue agains the incisors

Lateral, posterior interdental tongue rest posture

Inappropriate thrusting of the tongue in speaking and/or swallowing

61

What are the consequences of mouth breathing?

(5)

Thickened mucous and/or tooth decay

Decrease nostril and nasal cavity size

Anterior tongue carriage

Abnormal facial growth

Possibly sleep apnea

62

What are some symptoms of tongue thrust?

(3)

Open bit - possible malocclusion

Reverse swallow

Contraction of mentalis muscle

63

Why is tongue position so important?

(3)

Dentition

Feeding

Physiology of the orofacial structure