3.02 - Phonation B Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.02 - Phonation B Deck (89):
1

The anterior 2/3 of the glottis is ______.

Membranous

2

The posterior third of the glottis is _______.

Cartilaginous

3

The arytenoids are in the _____ portion of the glottis.

Posterior

4

The cartilaginous portion of the vocal folds are ______.

Stiffer

5

The membranous portion of the vocal folds creates the ______.

Mucosal wave

6

What is the name of the muscle in the vocal folds?

Thyroarytenoid muscle

7

What is the Internal Thryoarytenoid called? How far from the glottis is it?

Vocalis

Near

8

What is the External Thryoarytenoid called? How far from the glottis is it?

Muscularis

Far

9

The vocal folds are comprised of what three things?

Vocalis (Internal Thryoarytenoid)

Muscularis (External Thryoarytenoid)

Vocal Ligament

10

What are the false vocal cords called?

(2)

Ventricular folds

Ventricular ligaments

11

What is the entryway to the larynx called?

Aditus

12

What are the passive forces that influence the movement of the laryngeal apparatus?

(3)

Recoil forces

Surface tension

Gravity

13

What are the active forces that influence the movement of the laryngeal apparatus?

(2)

Intrinsic Muscles (those within the larynx)

Extrinsic Muscles (those with only one laryngeal attachment - usually to hyoid)

14

What is recoil?

Elasticity causing muscles to want to return to resting state

15

Can the vocal folds close themselves?

No. They rely on other muscles

16

Does the Thyroarytenoid aid in abduction/adduction?

No

17

What causes surface tension in the larynx?

(2)

Moisture

Mucosal membranes

18

What are the Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles?

(6)

Cricothyroid

Thyroarytenoid

Lateral Cricoarytenoid

Posterior Cricoarytenoid

Oblique Arytenoid

Transverse Arytenoid

19

What does PCA stand for?

Posterior Cricoarytenoid

20

What does LCA stand for?

Lateral Cricoarytenoid

21

The PCA and the LCA attach to the ________________.

Muscular process of the arytenoid

22

Contracting the PCA ______. The muscles courses ______.

ABDUCTS

Up

23

Contracting the LCA ______. The muscles courses ______.

Adducts

Down

24

Does contracting the TA abduct or adduct the vocal folds? (What does TA stand for?

Neither

Thyroarytenoids

25

The Oblique Arytenoids ______. Contracting them _____. This causes the ______ to be ________.

Crisscross

Adducts

Arytenoids

Pulled together

26

The Transverse Arytenoids go _____. This causes the vocal folds to _______.

Across

Adduct

27

What is unique about the Transverse Arytenoids?

They aren't paired. There is only one.

28

The Aryepiglottic Fibers are a continuation of the _______.

Oblique Arytenoids

29

The cricothyroid is a ______ in adduction.

Non-player

30

What is the Macula Flava?

The ligament at the thyroid that connects to the vocal ligament.

31

The Thyroarytenoid gets ______ when it's contracted. This _____ the thyroid cartilage and _____ pitch.

Shorter

Pulls back

Lowers

32

Tensing the larynx muscles lets us put more forces in _____ allowing us to be ______.

Subglottal pressure

Louder

33

What is the Cuneiform Tubercule?

Where the Cuneiform Cartilages are embedded in the Aryepiglottic Fold

34

What does contracting the Thyroarytenoids accomplish when the vocal folds are shortened?

Creates more cross-sectional mass

35

What does contracting the Thyroarytenoids accomplish when the vocal folds are lengthened?

Increases tension

36

The Lateral Cricoarytenoid goes from the ______ to the _______.

Cricoid Arch

Muscular Process of the Arytenoids

37

The Posterior Cricoarytenoid goes from the ______ to the _______. What does it do?

Cricoid Lamina

Muscular Process of the Arytenoids

ADBUCTS - Opens glottis

38

What are the two parts of the Cricothyroid?

Pars Rectus

Pars Oblique

39

When the cricothyroid muscles pull forward, the PCA muscle can act as a ___________.

Antagonist stabilizing the arytenoids

40

What are the three Arytenoid muscles?

Transverse

Oblique

Aryepiglottic

41

What does the Cricothyroid do?

Lengthens

42

In what three ways are the vocal folds changed by the muscles?

Abducted

Adducted

Lengthened

43

What abducts the vocal folds?

PCA

44

What adducts the vocal folds?

LCA

Arytenoids

45

What lengthens the vocal folds?

CA (Cricoarytenoid)

CT (Cricothyroid)

46

What is cross sectional mass?

The width

47

Are there any bone to bone attachments in the larynx?

No

48

What do the Extrinsic Muscles do in the Larynx?

(3)

Suspend the hyo-laryngeal complex in the neck

Can elevate or depress larynx

Can move larynx anteriorly

49

What are the three extrinsic laryngeal muscles?

Thyrohyoid

Sternothyroid

Inferior constrictor

50

What does the Thyrohyoid do?

(2)

Pulls the hyoid down

Pulls larynx up

51

What does the Sternothyroid do?

Lowers larynx

52

What does the Inferior Constrictor connect?

????

53

What does the Inferior Constrictor do?

(3)

Constricts inwards

Squeezes

Can pull back of muscle forward

54

What is buried in the Inferior Constrictor? Where does it course to?

Thyroid

Pharyngeal wall

55

What are the Supplemental Neck muscles?

(4)

Digastric (Anterior & Posterior)

Sternohyoid

Mylohyoid

Omohyoid (Anterior & Posterior)

56

What are the Supplemental Tongue muscles?

Stylohyoid

Hyoglossus

Genioglossus

Geniohyoid

57

What do the Digastrics connect?

The lower jaw to the hyoid

58

What does the Mylohyoid connect?

Mandible to Hyoid

59

What happens the the Mylohyoid as you age?

It can sag

60

Where is the Genioglossus?

At the front of the chin

61

What does the Stylohyoid connect?

Base of the hyoid to the Stylo process (intrusion behind the tongue)

62

What does the Hyoglossis connect?

Tongue to Hyoid

63

The vagus nerve is cranial nerve _____.

X (10)

64

What are the three branches of the Vagus Nerve?

Pharyngeal branch

Superior laryngeal branch

Recurrent laryngeal branch

65

What does the Pharyngeal Branch of the Vagus Nerve innervate?

Pharynx

Soft Palate

66

What are the two parts to the Superior Laryngeal Branch of the Vagus Nerve?

Internal

External

67

What does the INTERNAL Superior Laryngeal Branch of the Vagus Nerve innervate?

Sensory input from the region ABOVE the vocal folds

68

What does the EXTERNAL Superior Laryngeal Branch of the Vagus Nerve innervate?

Motor output to the Cricothyroid

69

What does the Recurrent Laryngeal Branch of the Vagus Nerve innervate?

Sensory input to the vocal folds

Sensory input to the area BELOW the vocal folds

Motor output to all the muscles except the Cricothyroid

70

Which part of the Vagus Nerve is asymmetrical? Why?

Recurrent Laryngeal Branch

It has to wrap around different aspects of the heart

71

What part of the Vagus Nerve lets me know about a sore throat?

Superior Laryngeal Branch

72

What part of the Vagus Nerve lets me know I'm choking?

Recurrent Laryngeal Branch

73

What are the two efferent (motor) innervations of the larynx?

External Branch of the Superior Laryngeal Nerve

Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

74

What are the two afferent (sensory) innervations of the larynx?

Internal Branch of the Superior Laryngeal Nerve

Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

75

What other five nerves provide extrinsic and supplemental muscular innervation?

CN V

CN VII

CN IX

CN XII

Cervical Spinal Nerves

76

What is CN V? What does it innervate?

Trigemingal Nerve

Chewing (Phonation)

77

What is CN VII? What does it innervate?

Facial Nerve

Face

78

What is CN IX? What does it innervate?

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

Pharynx (Sensory for back third of tongue)

79

What is CN XII? What does it innervate? What does it pass through?

Hypoglossal Nerve

Tongue

Jugular Vein & Carotid Artery

80

What is the Neurochronaxic Theory?

That vocal fold vibration is caused by neural impulses & muscle movement

81

Who came up with the Neurochronaxic Theory? When?

Husson

1950

82

What are the problems with the Neurochronaxic Theory?

Airflow is not necessary

Vagus nerve is not symmetrical so impulses would not arrive together

83

What is the Myoelastic-Aerodynamic Theory?

Vocal fold vibration is due to a complex interaction between muscles, recoil and air flow

84

How does the Myoelastic-Aerodynamic Theory work?

(3)

Subglottal pressure causes the vocal folds to be blown apart

Elastic recoil causes them to come back together

Bernoulli Force - air creates negative pressure pulling the vocal folds together

85

Who came up with the Myoelastic-Aerodynamic Theory? When?

Muller & van den Berg

1843 & 1958

86

What is the Mucoviscoelastic-Aerodynamic Theory?

Incorporates the muscosal wave with vertical phase difference

87

What is the Vertical Phase Difference?

Vocal folds are blown open starting with the bottom

Vocal folds close starting at the bottom

88

What is the Horizontal Phase Difference?

When phonating, the vocal folds open from the center first and close the center last

89

What can cause differences in glottal size and shape?

Gender

Neck length

Etc.