Flashcards in 11 and 12- Immune Function and Stress and Autoimmune Diseases Deck (64):
what is immunity?
the ability of the body to fight infection and/or foreign invaders by producing antibodies or killing infected cells.
what is the immune system ?
the system responsible for maintaining homeostasis by recognizing harmful from nonharmful organisms and produces an appropriate response
what are foreign invaders called ?
what are antigens ?
toxins that pathogens produce that cause harm to an organism
what are the four parts of the immune system ?
thymus, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes
what does the thymus gland do ?
produces T lymphocytes
what does the bone marrow do?
produces B lymphocytes
what are the two functions of the skin in the immune response ?
1) provides physical barrier
2) provides chemical barrier
what is the first line of defense ?
what is the property of second line of defense ?
a nonspecific immune response
what are the 4 defenses of the nonspecific immune response ?
phagocytosis, natural killer cells, inflammation, fever
what is the property of the third line of defense ?
a specific immune response
what is the main feature of the third line of defense ?
creation of antibodies
what are the two cells proper to the third line of defense ?
B and T cells
what are antibodies produced by ?
what are the functions of antibodies ?
recognize antigens, bind to and deactivate them
what is the primary immune response ?
response to an invader the first time the invader infects the body
no measurable immune response at first, antibody production grows steadily for 10-15 days
what is the secondary immune response ?
a more rapid response to an invader
antibody production increases dramatically and in a much shorter time period
what is active immunity ?
the body actively producing antibodies
what is vaccination ?
injection of a weakened strain of an infectious microbe that causes the body to undergo active immunity
what is passive immunity
antibodies given to a person from the blood of another person or animal
immunity only lasts for a period of time
what is an allergy ? ?
an exaggerated response from the immune system to an allergen
what are the two types of allergic reactions ?
immediate and delayed
how do NE and E alter lymphocytes ? what does this mean ?
immediate: increase in lymphocytes, natural killer cells
longer: decrease in natural killer cells
therefore initial stress response increases immunity
but longer stress will decrease it
what kind of stress is the biggest risk factor ?
daily hassles, because they do not resolve
what effect does cortisol have on immune function ?
inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and production of cytokines
what kind of stressors is our body designed for ?
short term stressor
how does aging affect the immune system, for example when it comes to responses to influenza vaccine ?
caregiving is a major stress, and stress can accelerate the effects of aging on inflammation
avg caregiver has 4 time increase in IL-6
why are studies about stress and cancer inconsistent in humans ?
cancer is a heterogenous disease with many risk factors.
what are the ways in which chronic stress may cause cancer (3)
- disregulate DNA repair
- suppression of immune system, increase of virus associated with cancers
- promote tumor growth
what are the two ways in which stress affects disease ?
may cause it or help progress it
what population is more likely to have a URTI ?
children that are stressed
how does wound healing change after an emotional disclosure intervention ?
writing about a traumatic event and focus on emotions will enhance wound healing- significantly smaller wounds after biopsy compared to those who wrote about time management
at the site of a wound, what will be found in participants with high cortisol levels ?
a lower immune response (lower levels of cytokines)
what is inflammation ?
Body’s reaction to infection, irritation or other injuries
Part of the immune response
Allows for different components of the immune response to be brought to the compromised site
what are the two kind of autoimmune disorders ?
systemic autoimmune disease and localized autoimmune disease
what is systemic or non organ specific autoimmune disease ?
those that damage many organs
what are 4 examples of systemic autoimmune disease
what is localized or organ-specific autoimmune disease ?
one single tissue or organ affected
what are 4 examples of localized autoimmune disease
type 1 diabetes
can you have more than one autoimmune disease ?
explain the main mechanism of autoimmune response
In a few types of autoimmune disease (such as rheumatic fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.
what could be the main T-cell risk factor in autoimmune disease
t cell receptor dysfunction
what gender is most affected by autoimmune disease
what are the common symptoms of autoimmune disease (5)
affect on weight
what is Crohn's disease ?
inflammation of GI tract
what are the two kinds of risk factors in Crohn's ?
genetic and environmental
what is rheumatoid arthritis ?
inflammation of synovial joints, leading to destruction of articular cartilage
which gender most affected by RA? what ratio ?
what is multiple sclerosis ?
inflammation leading to demyelination of axons in the brain and spinal cord
what works as a trigger for MS ?
what is the full name of lupus ?
systemic lupus erythematosus
what is lupus ?
inflammation anywhere in body
what gender is more likely to be affected by lupus ? by what ratio ?
which ethnicity more likely to have lupus ?
how many different autoimmune diseases are there ?
what percentage of US population affected by AD ?
what % of ppl suffering from AD are women ?
how does stress predispose to AD development ?
Alteration of one or many components of the
Increased susceptibility to infectious diseases
what frequently precedes exacerbation of MS ?
respiratory viral infection
how does childhood stress affect likelihood to develop autoimmune disorder ?
dose response relationship
childhood stress creates what long term changes which affect AD ? (3)
- decreased cortisol levels
- repeated immune activation during development
- more social stress
what kind of stress exacerbates lupus