11 and 12- Immune Function and Stress and Autoimmune Diseases Flashcards Preview

Psychology > 11 and 12- Immune Function and Stress and Autoimmune Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in 11 and 12- Immune Function and Stress and Autoimmune Diseases Deck (64):
1

what is immunity?

the ability of the body to fight infection and/or foreign invaders by producing antibodies or killing infected cells.

2

what is the immune system ?

the system responsible for maintaining homeostasis by recognizing harmful from nonharmful organisms and produces an appropriate response

3

what are foreign invaders called ?

pathogens

4

what are antigens ?

toxins that pathogens produce that cause harm to an organism

5

what are the four parts of the immune system ?

thymus, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes

6

what does the thymus gland do ?

produces T lymphocytes

7

what does the bone marrow do?

produces B lymphocytes

8

what are the two functions of the skin in the immune response ?

1) provides physical barrier
2) provides chemical barrier

9

what is the first line of defense ?

the skin

10

what is the property of second line of defense ?

a nonspecific immune response

11

what are the 4 defenses of the nonspecific immune response ?

phagocytosis, natural killer cells, inflammation, fever

12

what is the property of the third line of defense ?

a specific immune response

13

what is the main feature of the third line of defense ?

creation of antibodies

14

what are the two cells proper to the third line of defense ?

B and T cells

15

what are antibodies produced by ?

B- cells

16

what are the functions of antibodies ?

recognize antigens, bind to and deactivate them

17

what is the primary immune response ?

response to an invader the first time the invader infects the body
no measurable immune response at first, antibody production grows steadily for 10-15 days

18

what is the secondary immune response ?

a more rapid response to an invader
antibody production increases dramatically and in a much shorter time period

19

what is active immunity ?

the body actively producing antibodies
eg vaccination

20

what is vaccination ?

injection of a weakened strain of an infectious microbe that causes the body to undergo active immunity

21

what is passive immunity

antibodies given to a person from the blood of another person or animal
immunity only lasts for a period of time
eg breastfeeding

22

what is an allergy ? ?

an exaggerated response from the immune system to an allergen

23

what are the two types of allergic reactions ?

immediate and delayed

24

how do NE and E alter lymphocytes ? what does this mean ?

immediate: increase in lymphocytes, natural killer cells
longer: decrease in natural killer cells

therefore initial stress response increases immunity
but longer stress will decrease it

25

what kind of stress is the biggest risk factor ?

daily hassles, because they do not resolve

26

what effect does cortisol have on immune function ?

inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and production of cytokines

27

what kind of stressors is our body designed for ?

short term stressor

28

how does aging affect the immune system, for example when it comes to responses to influenza vaccine ?

caregiving is a major stress, and stress can accelerate the effects of aging on inflammation
avg caregiver has 4 time increase in IL-6

29

why are studies about stress and cancer inconsistent in humans ?

cancer is a heterogenous disease with many risk factors.

30

what are the ways in which chronic stress may cause cancer (3)

- disregulate DNA repair
- suppression of immune system, increase of virus associated with cancers
- promote tumor growth

31

what are the two ways in which stress affects disease ?

may cause it or help progress it
affects recovery

32

what population is more likely to have a URTI ?

children that are stressed

33

how does wound healing change after an emotional disclosure intervention ?

writing about a traumatic event and focus on emotions will enhance wound healing- significantly smaller wounds after biopsy compared to those who wrote about time management

34

at the site of a wound, what will be found in participants with high cortisol levels ?

a lower immune response (lower levels of cytokines)

35

what is inflammation ?

Body’s reaction to infection, irritation or other injuries

Part of the immune response

Allows for different components of the immune response to be brought to the compromised site

36

what are the two kind of autoimmune disorders ?

systemic autoimmune disease and localized autoimmune disease

37

what is systemic or non organ specific autoimmune disease ?

those that damage many organs

38

what are 4 examples of systemic autoimmune disease

rheumatoid arthritis
sjogren's syndrome
lupus erythematosus
scleroderma

39

what is localized or organ-specific autoimmune disease ?

one single tissue or organ affected

40

what are 4 examples of localized autoimmune disease

type 1 diabetes
hashimotos' thyroiditis
celiac disease
crohn disease

41

can you have more than one autoimmune disease ?

yes

42

explain the main mechanism of autoimmune response

In a few types of autoimmune disease (such as rheumatic fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.

43

what could be the main T-cell risk factor in autoimmune disease

t cell receptor dysfunction

44

what gender is most affected by autoimmune disease

women

45

what are the common symptoms of autoimmune disease (5)

fatigue
affect on weight
muscle pain
insomnia
inflammation

46

what is Crohn's disease ?

inflammation of GI tract

47

what are the two kinds of risk factors in Crohn's ?

genetic and environmental

48

what is rheumatoid arthritis ?

inflammation of synovial joints, leading to destruction of articular cartilage

49

which gender most affected by RA? what ratio ?

women, 3:1

50

what is multiple sclerosis ?

inflammation leading to demyelination of axons in the brain and spinal cord

51

what works as a trigger for MS ?

infection

52

what is the full name of lupus ?

systemic lupus erythematosus

53

what is lupus ?

inflammation anywhere in body

54

what gender is more likely to be affected by lupus ? by what ratio ?

women, 9:1

55

which ethnicity more likely to have lupus ?

non european

56

how many different autoimmune diseases are there ?

70-80

57

what percentage of US population affected by AD ?

3-8%

58

what % of ppl suffering from AD are women ?

80

59

how does stress predispose to AD development ?

Alteration of one or many components of the
immune system

Increased susceptibility to infectious diseases

60

what frequently precedes exacerbation of MS ?

respiratory viral infection

61

how does childhood stress affect likelihood to develop autoimmune disorder ?

dose response relationship

62

childhood stress creates what long term changes which affect AD ? (3)

- decreased cortisol levels
- repeated immune activation during development
- more social stress

63

what kind of stress exacerbates lupus

daily stress

64

what hormone will increase with daily stress in lupus

prolactin