Flashcards in 16- PTSD Deck (22):
what is the cause of PTSD ?
exposure to actual or threatened death, serious or sexual violence in which the sense of personal safety is threatened
what are the diagnostic criteria of PTSD? (4 + 2)
presence of 1 or more intrusive symptoms of: recurrent memories, recurrent nightmares, intense distress at cue exposure, marked physiological reactivity at cue exposure
persistence avoidance of 1 or both:
avoidance of distressing memories, thoughts of the event + avoidance of external reminders that arouse memories of event (activities, people)
how does PTSD affect mood ?
inability of remembering an important aspect of the event
persistent distorted thoughts about cause or consequence of event- lead to blame of self or others
feeling detached from others
how does PTSD affect arousal ?
irritable behavior, angry outbursts
exaggerated startle response
what percentage of the general population has PTSD ?
what percentage of trauma victims has PTSD?
what percentage of combat veterans has PTSD ?
what percentage of sexual assault victims have PTSD ?
what gender is more likely to have PTSD ?
what is the dose response relationship in PTSD ?
the more lack social support, the more chances of PTSD
eg comparing WW1 veterans and Vietnam veterans
what is the main comorbidity with PTSD ?
what is acute stress disorder ?
a milder version of PTSD lasting 3 days to 1 month
what is the main criticism of PTSD ?
there is too much focus on the event causing PTSD, but not everyone develops PTSD so there should be more focus on the individual variability
what are pre trauma risk factors to PTSD ?
genetic predisposition, personality vulnerabilities
what is the main risk factor during trauma for PTSD ?
what is the main risk factor post trauma for PTSD ?
bad social support system
what is the heritability of PTSD ?
degree of 0.40, meaning 16%
what 3 main neurological vulnerabilities are PTSD risk factors ?
low cortisol levels
amygdala excessive activation
smaller hippocampal volume (can't dampen amygdala properly)
what attachment style may lead to more chances of developing PTSD ?
what locus of control is a PTSD risk factor ?
what is the cognitive appraisal pattern leading to PTSD ?
assumption that the world is a safe place is shattered