15- Stress and Sleep Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 15- Stress and Sleep Disorders Deck (50):
1

what are the four different stages of sleep ?

NREM Stage 1
NREM Stage 2
NREM Stage 3
REM Sleep

2

how many sleep cycles and of how long do we experience per night ?

6 cycles of 90 minutes

3

what is NREM Stage 1 ? duration, brain waves ?

occurs when you first fall asleep
lasts for 10 minutes (5% of total sleep time)
very easy to be woken up
brain goes from alpha waves to theta waves

4

what is NREM Stage 2 ? duration, brain waves ?

30-60 minutes (50% of total sleep time)
delta waves

5

what is NREM Stage 3 ? duration, brain waves ?

20-30 minutes in first cycle of sleep and then less and less
20% of total sleep time

6

what is the hardest stage to wake up from ?

NREM stage 3 (deep sleep)

7

what is the final stage in the sleep cycle ?

REM

8

what are physiological characteristics of REM sleep ?

HR, breathing, BP fluctuate

9

what is the muscle movement in REM sleep ?

muscle twitching and paralysis, rapid eye movement

10

what is the brain pattern in REM sleep ?

fast pattern

11

what stage of sleep does dreaming occur in ?

REM

12

why can't you act out your dreams ?

muscles are paralyzed

13

how does REM sleep progress throughout the night ?

in first sleep cycle REM can be a few minutes but then in last cycle can last up to an hour

14

REM sleep accounts for what percentage of sleep time ?

25

15

what is the circadian rhythm?

biological clock that helps control sleep/wake cycle, timing of sleep patterns and duration of sleep

16

what is the Restoration Sleep Theory by Zager ?

that the proper functioning of our immune system is dependent on sleep

17

what are the two Ontogenesis Sleep Theory ?

Morrisey: REM sleep prevents apoptosis in developing brain and therefore allows for brain development

Marks: REM sleep helps with brain maturation through neural activity

18

how does sleep affect memory ?

sleep deprivation hinders working memory

19

what are the three categories of sleep disorders ?

1- dyssomnia
2- parasomnia
3- sleep disorders associated with mental/neurologic disorders

20

what is dyssomnia ?

disorder that produce either difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep

21

what are the three types of dyssomnias ?

intrinsic, extrinsic, circadian rhythm

22

what is parasomnia ?

disorders that intrude into the sleep process

23

what are parasomnia manifestations of ?

CNS activation during sleep

24

what are the four types of parasomnias ?

arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias in REM sleep, other

25

what are the three characteristics of mild insomnia ?

almost nightly insufficient sleep, very little/no social impairment, sometimes irritability and daytime fatigue

26

what are the three characteristics of moderate insomnia ?

nightly insufficient sleep, mild-moderate social impairment, always rritability and daytime fatigue

27

what are the three characteristics of severe insomnia ?

nightly insufficient sleep, severe social impairment, severe irritability and daytime fatigue

28

what does psychophysiologic insomnia develop from ?

somatized tension and learned sleep preventing associations, also a preoccupation with not being able to sleep

29

what proportion of insomniacs have psychophysiologic insomnia ?

15%

30

what is hypersomnia ?

periods of extreme somnolence, 18-20 hrs/day
can last several days to several weeks
more common in males

31

what is bruxism ?

grinding and clenching teeth while sleeping

32

what are the consequences of bruxism ?

jaw pain, tooth wear, headaches, personal problems

33

what percent of the population has bruxism ?

5%

34

what is sleep enuresis ?

bed wetting

35

what is the bidirectional relationship between stress and sleep ?

daytime stress and HPA axis activation leads to poor sleep, which leads to increased daytime stress

36

what hormones increase following sleep deprivation?

corticosterone and ACTH

37

sleep problems affect how a response to a stressor ?

lower cortisol levels

38

in a study by Lauer and Lund where participants watched a film with disturbing content before going to bed, how did that affect sleep ?

pre-sleep emotion linked to REM density and duration as well as more interrupted sleep

39

in a study by Germain et al where participants were told they would be evaluated the next day on a public speech, how did that affect sleep ?

increase in REM density

40

how does work strain affect sleep ?

high strain work worsens the quality of sleep

41

in a study by Rauer et al with married couples, what did they find ?

sleep facilitated by feelings of safety, trust and security in partner leads to better sleep.
psychological abuse predicted more sleep problems

42

what is hypersomnia comorbid with ?

depression symptoms

43

how is stress related to bruxism ?

bruxers have less positive coping strategies, and more anticipated stress for next day

44

how does stress affect bed wetting ?

it doesn't contribute as a primary stress factor, but can make it worse (bladder contractions)

45

what is the personality trait most associated with poor sleep ?

neuroticism

46

what is daytime sensitivity to poor sleep ?

when you worry about not getting enough sleep (eg in neurotic people)

47

what is the link between neuroticism, conscientiousness, and sleep quality ?

neuroticism predicts bad sleep
conscientiousness predicts better sleep

high neuroticism and low conscientiousness individuals reported more social and academic problems

48

what is rumination ?

continuously thinking about problems that have occurred

49

what happens in a study where you put high and low ruminators in rumination and distraction conditions ?

no difference in distraction condition
in rumination condition, high trait ruminators report more sleep disturbance
low trait ruminators- no difference between conditions

50

what is the relationship between stress and dream content ?

stress increases negative dreams