Flashcards in 15- Stress and Sleep Disorders Deck (50):
what are the four different stages of sleep ?
NREM Stage 1
NREM Stage 2
NREM Stage 3
how many sleep cycles and of how long do we experience per night ?
6 cycles of 90 minutes
what is NREM Stage 1 ? duration, brain waves ?
occurs when you first fall asleep
lasts for 10 minutes (5% of total sleep time)
very easy to be woken up
brain goes from alpha waves to theta waves
what is NREM Stage 2 ? duration, brain waves ?
30-60 minutes (50% of total sleep time)
what is NREM Stage 3 ? duration, brain waves ?
20-30 minutes in first cycle of sleep and then less and less
20% of total sleep time
what is the hardest stage to wake up from ?
NREM stage 3 (deep sleep)
what is the final stage in the sleep cycle ?
what are physiological characteristics of REM sleep ?
HR, breathing, BP fluctuate
what is the muscle movement in REM sleep ?
muscle twitching and paralysis, rapid eye movement
what is the brain pattern in REM sleep ?
what stage of sleep does dreaming occur in ?
why can't you act out your dreams ?
muscles are paralyzed
how does REM sleep progress throughout the night ?
in first sleep cycle REM can be a few minutes but then in last cycle can last up to an hour
REM sleep accounts for what percentage of sleep time ?
what is the circadian rhythm?
biological clock that helps control sleep/wake cycle, timing of sleep patterns and duration of sleep
what is the Restoration Sleep Theory by Zager ?
that the proper functioning of our immune system is dependent on sleep
what are the two Ontogenesis Sleep Theory ?
Morrisey: REM sleep prevents apoptosis in developing brain and therefore allows for brain development
Marks: REM sleep helps with brain maturation through neural activity
how does sleep affect memory ?
sleep deprivation hinders working memory
what are the three categories of sleep disorders ?
3- sleep disorders associated with mental/neurologic disorders
what is dyssomnia ?
disorder that produce either difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep
what are the three types of dyssomnias ?
intrinsic, extrinsic, circadian rhythm
what is parasomnia ?
disorders that intrude into the sleep process
what are parasomnia manifestations of ?
CNS activation during sleep
what are the four types of parasomnias ?
arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias in REM sleep, other
what are the three characteristics of mild insomnia ?
almost nightly insufficient sleep, very little/no social impairment, sometimes irritability and daytime fatigue
what are the three characteristics of moderate insomnia ?
nightly insufficient sleep, mild-moderate social impairment, always rritability and daytime fatigue
what are the three characteristics of severe insomnia ?
nightly insufficient sleep, severe social impairment, severe irritability and daytime fatigue
what does psychophysiologic insomnia develop from ?
somatized tension and learned sleep preventing associations, also a preoccupation with not being able to sleep
what proportion of insomniacs have psychophysiologic insomnia ?
what is hypersomnia ?
periods of extreme somnolence, 18-20 hrs/day
can last several days to several weeks
more common in males
what is bruxism ?
grinding and clenching teeth while sleeping
what are the consequences of bruxism ?
jaw pain, tooth wear, headaches, personal problems
what percent of the population has bruxism ?
what is sleep enuresis ?
what is the bidirectional relationship between stress and sleep ?
daytime stress and HPA axis activation leads to poor sleep, which leads to increased daytime stress
what hormones increase following sleep deprivation?
corticosterone and ACTH
sleep problems affect how a response to a stressor ?
lower cortisol levels
in a study by Lauer and Lund where participants watched a film with disturbing content before going to bed, how did that affect sleep ?
pre-sleep emotion linked to REM density and duration as well as more interrupted sleep
in a study by Germain et al where participants were told they would be evaluated the next day on a public speech, how did that affect sleep ?
increase in REM density
how does work strain affect sleep ?
high strain work worsens the quality of sleep
in a study by Rauer et al with married couples, what did they find ?
sleep facilitated by feelings of safety, trust and security in partner leads to better sleep.
psychological abuse predicted more sleep problems
what is hypersomnia comorbid with ?
how is stress related to bruxism ?
bruxers have less positive coping strategies, and more anticipated stress for next day
how does stress affect bed wetting ?
it doesn't contribute as a primary stress factor, but can make it worse (bladder contractions)
what is the personality trait most associated with poor sleep ?
what is daytime sensitivity to poor sleep ?
when you worry about not getting enough sleep (eg in neurotic people)
what is the link between neuroticism, conscientiousness, and sleep quality ?
neuroticism predicts bad sleep
conscientiousness predicts better sleep
high neuroticism and low conscientiousness individuals reported more social and academic problems
what is rumination ?
continuously thinking about problems that have occurred
what happens in a study where you put high and low ruminators in rumination and distraction conditions ?
no difference in distraction condition
in rumination condition, high trait ruminators report more sleep disturbance
low trait ruminators- no difference between conditions