Flashcards in 9- Stress and Eating Deck (35):
What is hunger ?
an inborn physiological need to eat
What makes the body feel hunger ?
empty stomach and intestines send signals to the brain, that stimulate feelings of hunger, which prompts us to eat
What is appetite ?
Learned response and desire to eat food, usually associated with the sensory aspects of food.
What makes the body have an appetite ?
driven by external forces and influenced by our emotions, social situations, as well as cultural norms
what is satiety ?
feeling of fullness after a meal
what is satiety influenced by ?
by body signals more than external factors
what are internal factors that influence appetite ?
neuropeptide Y stimulates food intake
leptin reduces food intake
what are external factors that influence appetite?
environmental factors, social factors, palatability of foods
what is the set-point theory ?
In adult individuals body weight is maintained at a relatively stable level for long periods. The set-point theory suggests that body weight is regulated at a predetermined, or preferred, level by a feedback control mechanism.
how do lateral hypothalamus lesions affect body weight ?
they reduce the set point, and therefore lesioned rats maintain body weight at a new lower level
how do lateral ventromedial hypothalamus lesions affect body weight ?
increase set point for body weight, maintain body weight at a higher level
if you lesion a rat's brain, where would you lesion for it to eat more ?
if you lesion a rat's brain, where would you lesion for it to eat less ?
what is the dual center hypothesis?
This hypothesis has to do with the process of hunger and feeding, and the belief that the Lateral Hypothalamus causes you to feel hunger --> eating --> increase in blood glucose and the Ventro medial Hypothalamus causes you to stop feeling hungry (satiety) --> eating stops --> decrease in blood glucose --> cycle starts again.
what is the positive incentive theory?
eating triggered by external stimuli like time of day, sight or smell of food
what can happen in the stomach which affects appetite as a response to acute/chronic stress ?
slowed gastric emptying
what can happen in the non-essential organs which affects appetite as a response to acute/chronic stress ?
decrease in blood flow
what can happen in energy stores which affects appetite as a response to acute/chronic stress
mobilization of energy stores
which system mobilizes energy stores ?
what mode does the body go into to survive a famine or chronic stress ?
altered functioning of HPA stress axis may contribute to the development of what ?
what is a trigger for obesity and bulimic episodes ?
is high levels of dietary restraint good ?
no, usually followed by periods of low restraint
release of what hormone causes plasure during eating ?
dopamine, through increased mesolimbic neuronal activity
which gender has a correlation between snacking and stress ?
which dieting status has a correlation between snacking and stress ?
does texture of food affect how well food alleviates stress
mildly arousing stressors cause what eating habit ?
sever or chronic stressors cause what eating habit ?
reduce food intake
what hormone level may preduce stress induced eating in women ?
How is cortisol related to stress eating in a study in which you exposed fifty-nine healthy pre-menopausal women to both a stress session and a control session on different days
High cortisol reactors consumed more calories on the stress day compared to low reactors, but ate similar amounts on the control day. In terms of taste preferences, high reactors ate significantly more sweet food across days. Increases in negative mood in response to the stressors were also significantly related to greater food consumption. These results suggest that psychophysiological response to stress may influence subsequent eating behavior.
what are 4 types of unhealthy eating cues
how do social cues affect eating ?
eating often a primary activity in social settings
how do situational cues affect eating ?
seeking comfort during crisis, reward