9- Stress and Eating Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9- Stress and Eating Deck (35):
1

What is hunger ?

an inborn physiological need to eat

2

What makes the body feel hunger ?

empty stomach and intestines send signals to the brain, that stimulate feelings of hunger, which prompts us to eat

3

What is appetite ?

Learned response and desire to eat food, usually associated with the sensory aspects of food.

4

What makes the body have an appetite ?

driven by external forces and influenced by our emotions, social situations, as well as cultural norms

5

what is satiety ?

feeling of fullness after a meal

6

what is satiety influenced by ?

by body signals more than external factors

7

what are internal factors that influence appetite ?

neuropeptide Y stimulates food intake
leptin reduces food intake

8

what are external factors that influence appetite?

environmental factors, social factors, palatability of foods

9

what is the set-point theory ?

In adult individuals body weight is maintained at a relatively stable level for long periods. The set-point theory suggests that body weight is regulated at a predetermined, or preferred, level by a feedback control mechanism.

10

how do lateral hypothalamus lesions affect body weight ?

they reduce the set point, and therefore lesioned rats maintain body weight at a new lower level

11

how do lateral ventromedial hypothalamus lesions affect body weight ?

increase set point for body weight, maintain body weight at a higher level

12

if you lesion a rat's brain, where would you lesion for it to eat more ?

ventromedial hypothalamus

13

if you lesion a rat's brain, where would you lesion for it to eat less ?

lateral hypothalamus

14

what is the dual center hypothesis?

This hypothesis has to do with the process of hunger and feeding, and the belief that the Lateral Hypothalamus causes you to feel hunger --> eating --> increase in blood glucose and the Ventro medial Hypothalamus causes you to stop feeling hungry (satiety) --> eating stops --> decrease in blood glucose --> cycle starts again.

15

what is the positive incentive theory?

eating triggered by external stimuli like time of day, sight or smell of food

16

what can happen in the stomach which affects appetite as a response to acute/chronic stress ?

slowed gastric emptying

17

what can happen in the non-essential organs which affects appetite as a response to acute/chronic stress ?

decrease in blood flow

18

what can happen in energy stores which affects appetite as a response to acute/chronic stress

mobilization of energy stores

19

which system mobilizes energy stores ?

pituitary-adrenal-cortical axis

20

what mode does the body go into to survive a famine or chronic stress ?

fat storage

21

altered functioning of HPA stress axis may contribute to the development of what ?

anorexia

22

what is a trigger for obesity and bulimic episodes ?

stress

23

is high levels of dietary restraint good ?

no, usually followed by periods of low restraint

24

release of what hormone causes plasure during eating ?

dopamine, through increased mesolimbic neuronal activity

25

which gender has a correlation between snacking and stress ?

both

26

which dieting status has a correlation between snacking and stress ?

any

27

does texture of food affect how well food alleviates stress

yes

28

mildly arousing stressors cause what eating habit ?

increased eating

29

sever or chronic stressors cause what eating habit ?

reduce food intake

30

what hormone level may preduce stress induced eating in women ?

cortisol

31

How is cortisol related to stress eating in a study in which you exposed fifty-nine healthy pre-menopausal women to both a stress session and a control session on different days

High cortisol reactors consumed more calories on the stress day compared to low reactors, but ate similar amounts on the control day. In terms of taste preferences, high reactors ate significantly more sweet food across days. Increases in negative mood in response to the stressors were also significantly related to greater food consumption. These results suggest that psychophysiological response to stress may influence subsequent eating behavior.

32

what are 4 types of unhealthy eating cues

social cues
situational cues
negative thoughts
negative feelings

33

how do social cues affect eating ?

eating often a primary activity in social settings

34

how do situational cues affect eating ?

seeking comfort during crisis, reward

35

what is the cycle of automatic eating ?

related to negative thoughts and feelings as unhealthy eating cues

1) unpleasant situation
2) automatic negative thoughts
3) negative feelings
4) eat our emotions