5- Stress and Fetal Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5- Stress and Fetal Development Deck (22):
1

What is Barker's hypothesis ?

CHD, Type II diabetes, stroke, hypertension originate in fetal development if mom is overstressed

2

What is the programming hypothesis ?

an expansion of Barker's hypothesis

that non-genetic factors can organize or imprint permanently on physiological systems

3

what is the HPA axis ?

Hypothalamus releases
CRH
into pituitary gland
releases ACTH
adrenal gland releases cortisol

cortisol negative feedback for ACTH and CRH release

4

in pregnancy, the increase in cortisol concentration is due to what increases ?

estrogen and ACTH

5

what happens to cortisol concentrations at the end of pregnancy ?

glucocorticoid increase, trigger of mechanism that leads to birth

6

how does cortisol aid in postnatal survival and adaptation ?

accelerate lung maturation, decreases respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

cortisol helps newborn in the first year of life especially,

7

why is it good for there to be moderate levels of stress in fetal development ?

sensitizes developing nervous system
develop adaptive response to stress
in rats, it was found that this benefits later learning

8

what are the physiological impacts of maternal stress ? (5)

increase in infant mortality and preterm birth
decrease in birth weight and head circumference, which predict later development and learning
foetal movement and heart rate
HPA axis response
brain structure

9

what are the significant variables for spontaneous births ?

the only one is stress

10

what counts as a preterm birth ?

under 35 weeks

11

what diseases are more likely to occur later in life if mother was stressed ?

ADHD, schizophrenia

12

what is chronic stress ? what is it linked to ?

trait anxiety, state anxiety, daily hassles

linked to delayed language development, and lower intellectual functioning

13

what is pregnancy specific anxiety ? what is it linked to ?

stressors related to pregnancy

linked to shorter gestation, decreased mental and motor developent, restlessness

14

how do teratogens affect a child early in pregnancy, compared to at the end of pregnancy ?

early: structural malformation
end : neurobehavioral deficits

15

the worst outcomes come from stress in which time of pregnancy ?

mid-gestation

16

in non-humans, which time of pregnancy leads to the most detriment ?

early gestation

17

why do some people say that stress has the most impact on a fetus in first trimester ?

in the first trimester, a lot of stressed fetuses end up dying

18

in the first trimester, stress is most linked to what as a result ?

increase in congenital abnormalities, defect in cranial-neural crest

19

in the second trimester, stress is most linked to what as a result ?

atypical laterality

20

in the third trimester, stress is most linked to what as a result ?

more of a risk in preterm labor (50% increase in chance of premature delivery)

21

in the third trimester, stress is most linked to what as a result after birth?

increase in infant crying, fussing and negative facial expressions

22

in the ice storm study, what were the findings ?

that if they were in the 1st and 2nd trimester during the storm, there was the most impact on Bayley scores