Flashcards in 5- Stress and Fetal Development Deck (22):
What is Barker's hypothesis ?
CHD, Type II diabetes, stroke, hypertension originate in fetal development if mom is overstressed
What is the programming hypothesis ?
an expansion of Barker's hypothesis
that non-genetic factors can organize or imprint permanently on physiological systems
what is the HPA axis ?
into pituitary gland
adrenal gland releases cortisol
cortisol negative feedback for ACTH and CRH release
in pregnancy, the increase in cortisol concentration is due to what increases ?
estrogen and ACTH
what happens to cortisol concentrations at the end of pregnancy ?
glucocorticoid increase, trigger of mechanism that leads to birth
how does cortisol aid in postnatal survival and adaptation ?
accelerate lung maturation, decreases respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants
cortisol helps newborn in the first year of life especially,
why is it good for there to be moderate levels of stress in fetal development ?
sensitizes developing nervous system
develop adaptive response to stress
in rats, it was found that this benefits later learning
what are the physiological impacts of maternal stress ? (5)
increase in infant mortality and preterm birth
decrease in birth weight and head circumference, which predict later development and learning
foetal movement and heart rate
HPA axis response
what are the significant variables for spontaneous births ?
the only one is stress
what counts as a preterm birth ?
under 35 weeks
what diseases are more likely to occur later in life if mother was stressed ?
what is chronic stress ? what is it linked to ?
trait anxiety, state anxiety, daily hassles
linked to delayed language development, and lower intellectual functioning
what is pregnancy specific anxiety ? what is it linked to ?
stressors related to pregnancy
linked to shorter gestation, decreased mental and motor developent, restlessness
how do teratogens affect a child early in pregnancy, compared to at the end of pregnancy ?
early: structural malformation
end : neurobehavioral deficits
the worst outcomes come from stress in which time of pregnancy ?
in non-humans, which time of pregnancy leads to the most detriment ?
why do some people say that stress has the most impact on a fetus in first trimester ?
in the first trimester, a lot of stressed fetuses end up dying
in the first trimester, stress is most linked to what as a result ?
increase in congenital abnormalities, defect in cranial-neural crest
in the second trimester, stress is most linked to what as a result ?
in the third trimester, stress is most linked to what as a result ?
more of a risk in preterm labor (50% increase in chance of premature delivery)
in the third trimester, stress is most linked to what as a result after birth?
increase in infant crying, fussing and negative facial expressions