5- Stress and Fetal Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5- Stress and Fetal Development Deck (22):

What is Barker's hypothesis ?

CHD, Type II diabetes, stroke, hypertension originate in fetal development if mom is overstressed


What is the programming hypothesis ?

an expansion of Barker's hypothesis

that non-genetic factors can organize or imprint permanently on physiological systems


what is the HPA axis ?

Hypothalamus releases
into pituitary gland
releases ACTH
adrenal gland releases cortisol

cortisol negative feedback for ACTH and CRH release


in pregnancy, the increase in cortisol concentration is due to what increases ?

estrogen and ACTH


what happens to cortisol concentrations at the end of pregnancy ?

glucocorticoid increase, trigger of mechanism that leads to birth


how does cortisol aid in postnatal survival and adaptation ?

accelerate lung maturation, decreases respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

cortisol helps newborn in the first year of life especially,


why is it good for there to be moderate levels of stress in fetal development ?

sensitizes developing nervous system
develop adaptive response to stress
in rats, it was found that this benefits later learning


what are the physiological impacts of maternal stress ? (5)

increase in infant mortality and preterm birth
decrease in birth weight and head circumference, which predict later development and learning
foetal movement and heart rate
HPA axis response
brain structure


what are the significant variables for spontaneous births ?

the only one is stress


what counts as a preterm birth ?

under 35 weeks


what diseases are more likely to occur later in life if mother was stressed ?

ADHD, schizophrenia


what is chronic stress ? what is it linked to ?

trait anxiety, state anxiety, daily hassles

linked to delayed language development, and lower intellectual functioning


what is pregnancy specific anxiety ? what is it linked to ?

stressors related to pregnancy

linked to shorter gestation, decreased mental and motor developent, restlessness


how do teratogens affect a child early in pregnancy, compared to at the end of pregnancy ?

early: structural malformation
end : neurobehavioral deficits


the worst outcomes come from stress in which time of pregnancy ?



in non-humans, which time of pregnancy leads to the most detriment ?

early gestation


why do some people say that stress has the most impact on a fetus in first trimester ?

in the first trimester, a lot of stressed fetuses end up dying


in the first trimester, stress is most linked to what as a result ?

increase in congenital abnormalities, defect in cranial-neural crest


in the second trimester, stress is most linked to what as a result ?

atypical laterality


in the third trimester, stress is most linked to what as a result ?

more of a risk in preterm labor (50% increase in chance of premature delivery)


in the third trimester, stress is most linked to what as a result after birth?

increase in infant crying, fussing and negative facial expressions


in the ice storm study, what were the findings ?

that if they were in the 1st and 2nd trimester during the storm, there was the most impact on Bayley scores