8- Gender Differences in Stress Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8- Gender Differences in Stress Deck (25):
1

which gender has greater exposure to chronic stress ?

women

2

which gender rates stress more intensely ?

women

3

what are the 2 traumatic events usually reported by women ?

childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual assault

4

who is more likely to experience traumatic effects ?

men, 36% more likely

5

what are the traumatic events usually reported by men?

accidents, etc

6

what is the difference between tasks that stress men and women?

men: achievement tasks
women: socially oriented tasks

7

what are engagement strategies ?

reduce likelihood of maladaptive response to stress (problem solving, positive thinking, etc)
problem-focused response

8

what are disengagement strategies ?

mediate relationship between perceived stress and psychopathology (avoidance, denial, wishfull thinking)
emotion focused response

9

what is the socialization hypothesis ?

attributes associated with gender roles influence types of socially acceptable responses to stress and therefore the coping strategy used

10

what is the role-constraint hypothesis ?

gender roles increase/decrease likelihood of occupying different societal roles

11

what did the Sontag study show

girls: engagement coping, symptoms of anxiety depression
boys: overt aggression in reaction to stress

12

in the Sontag study, what was disengagement associated with?

decreased overt aggression, therefore may serve a protective purpose

13

in the Sontag study, what is the problem for men in using engagement methods ?

conflict with social conventions

14

what did the Tamers study find ?

women have more coping strategies across all stressors

15

what are gender differences in physiological responses to stress ?

men: increased BP
women: increased HR

16

how does hippocampus volume depend on gender

women: hippocampus volume associated with birth weight and maternal care : emotionality, warmth, friendliness

men: associated with high locus of control
measure of personal competency

17

what does hippocampus volume relate to ?

magnitude of stress response

18

how do oral contraceptives influence cortisol levels ?

decrease cortisol lvl
body compensates with cortisol increase

19

what pituitary hormone is higher in women? what pituitary hormone higher in men? what are their roles ?

oxytocin higher in women, dampens stress response

vasopressin higher in men, stimulates stress response

20

what do the difference in gender & pituitary hormone levels explain in psychosocial stress situations?

women: tend to befriend
men: fight or flight

21

what is a main risk factor in CHD ?

low control over domestic conditions, but only FOR WOMEN (3x more CHD)
men, no difference

22

what acts as a protective mechanism against CHD in women?

estrogen

23

what may contribute to higher rate of depression in women?

higher prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in women

24

what is a main risk factor for depression in men and women?

childhood sex abuse

25

what gender 2x more likely to get PTSD ?

women