Flashcards in 19-Addiction Deck (22):
what is the proportion of Canadians that will experience addiction during their lifetime ?
what is the proportion of people who need care and don't receive it ?
what disease affects more people than heart disease
the majority of acute alcohol problems are the result of what ?
average drinkers who drink too much on single drinking occasions
what is the main drug of abuse ?
what is the proportion of males and females who drink alcohol which exceeds the guidelines ?
90% of alcohol by males
85% of alcohol by females
what are the two definitions of tolerance ?
the need for an increased amount of a given drug to achieve intoxication or desired effect
or the reduction of a drug's effect with continued use of the same dose over time
what are the two occasions withdrawal happens ?
when a drug is abruptly removed or the dose is significantly decreased
what is psychological dependence ?
a state in which stopping or reducing the dose produces non-physical symptoms
what is considered the most important defining feature of addiction ?
what is one situation that shows how important psychological dependence is ?
detox only lasts a couple of days
it is then the psychological dependence that takes a while to leave
what are the 5 different models of addiction ?
what is the moral model of addiction ? what are its implications for treatment? what are its pros (2) and cons (2) ?
addiction = result of flawed character, therefore healing should be through higher values
the temperance movement and the war on drugs
pros: empowering and appealing to those with a worldview based on right/wrong
cons: judgmental and simplifies the complex nature of addiction
what is the disease model of addiction ? treatment implications? pro and con ?
addiction as a switch in brain, attributed to genetics, a chronic condition that cannot be cured
12 step program, drug intervention
pro: indignation replaced with pity
con: encourages simple minded policies
what is the social model of addiction ? treatment implications (3) ? pros (2) and cons (2) ?
socialization in milieu encouraging addictive use, focus on environment, peers, etc
communal efforts to aid addict, new peers etc, importance of positive role models (ef recovered addicts)
pros: responsibility for some societal norms, identifies at risk populations
cons: cultural stereotypes, blame placed on culture
what is the psychological model of addiction ? treatment implications (2) ? pro and con ?
addiction as emotional regulation, way of avoiding aversive emotions, addictive personality
cognitive behavioral therapy, stress management
pro:empowers the individual
con: evidence weak on some concepts such as addictive personality
what model is the addictive personality associated with ?
what is the biopsychosocial model of addiction ?
the one mostly used, with different aspects such as genes, personality, and social circle taken into consideration
what is the social stress model ?
it shows that things like bad family relationships, lack of social support may predict substance abuse
what molecule is released with drug consumption ?
what brain structure does early stress exposure affect ?
The hippocampus plays a role in the acquisition and extinction of memories associated with drug seeking behavior.