19-Addiction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 19-Addiction Deck (22):
1

what is the proportion of Canadians that will experience addiction during their lifetime ?

1/4

2

what is the proportion of people who need care and don't receive it ?

2/3

3

what disease affects more people than heart disease

addiction

4

the majority of acute alcohol problems are the result of what ?

average drinkers who drink too much on single drinking occasions

5

what is the main drug of abuse ?

alcohol

6

what is the proportion of males and females who drink alcohol which exceeds the guidelines ?

90% of alcohol by males
85% of alcohol by females

7

what are the two definitions of tolerance ?

the need for an increased amount of a given drug to achieve intoxication or desired effect

or the reduction of a drug's effect with continued use of the same dose over time

8

what are the two occasions withdrawal happens ?

when a drug is abruptly removed or the dose is significantly decreased

9

what is psychological dependence ?

a state in which stopping or reducing the dose produces non-physical symptoms

10

what is considered the most important defining feature of addiction ?

psychological dependence

11

what is one situation that shows how important psychological dependence is ?

rehab
detox only lasts a couple of days
it is then the psychological dependence that takes a while to leave

12

what are the 5 different models of addiction ?

moral
disease
social
psychological
biopsychosocial

13

what is the moral model of addiction ? what are its implications for treatment? what are its pros (2) and cons (2) ?

addiction = result of flawed character, therefore healing should be through higher values

the temperance movement and the war on drugs

pros: empowering and appealing to those with a worldview based on right/wrong

cons: judgmental and simplifies the complex nature of addiction

14

what is the disease model of addiction ? treatment implications? pro and con ?

addiction as a switch in brain, attributed to genetics, a chronic condition that cannot be cured

12 step program, drug intervention

pro: indignation replaced with pity

con: encourages simple minded policies

15

what is the social model of addiction ? treatment implications (3) ? pros (2) and cons (2) ?

socialization in milieu encouraging addictive use, focus on environment, peers, etc

communal efforts to aid addict, new peers etc, importance of positive role models (ef recovered addicts)

pros: responsibility for some societal norms, identifies at risk populations

cons: cultural stereotypes, blame placed on culture

16

what is the psychological model of addiction ? treatment implications (2) ? pro and con ?

addiction as emotional regulation, way of avoiding aversive emotions, addictive personality

cognitive behavioral therapy, stress management

pro:empowers the individual

con: evidence weak on some concepts such as addictive personality

17

what model is the addictive personality associated with ?

psychological model

18

what is the biopsychosocial model of addiction ?

the one mostly used, with different aspects such as genes, personality, and social circle taken into consideration

19

what is the social stress model ?

it shows that things like bad family relationships, lack of social support may predict substance abuse

20

what molecule is released with drug consumption ?

dopamine

21

what brain structure does early stress exposure affect ?

hippocampus
The hippocampus plays a role in the acquisition and extinction of memories associated with drug seeking behavior.

22

what brain structure does adolescent stress affect ?

prefrontal cortex, responsible for decision making