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1

1. Although harmful in excessive amounts, the synthesis of steroids depends on:
a. heavy materials.
b. cholesterol.
c. ethanol.
d. insulin.

b. cholesterol

2

2. Two major classes of sex hormones are:
a. luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone.
b. dopamine and serotonin.
c. steroids and thyroid hormones.
d. androgens and estrogens.

d. androgens and estrogens

3

3. Steroid hormones produce their effects by:
a. disrupting cell membranes.
b. opening ion channels.
c. increasing cholesterol levels.
d. entering cells and affecting gene expression.

d. entering cells and affecting gene expression.

4

4. Which of the following is true of androgens and estrogens?
a. Only males have androgens.
b. Both sexes have both types of hormones.
c. They are produced by the pituitary.
d. They have opposite effects in males and females.

b. both sexes have both types of hormones

5

5. "Male hormones" are referred to as:
a. activating hormones.
b. SRY.
c. androgens.
d. estrogens.

c. androgens

6

6. "Female hormones" are referred to as:
a. activating hormones.
b. SRY.
c. androgens.
d. estrogens.

d. estrogens

7

7. _____ prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
a. Testosterone
b. Androgen
c. Progesterone
d. Estradiol

c. progesterone

8

8. In general, when do hormones produce "organizing effects"?
a. Whenever the levels of some other hormone have decreased.
b. During early stages in development.
c. During adulthood.
d. Temporarily, at any time in life.

b. during early stages in development

9

An organizing effect differs from an activating effect of a hormone in that an organization effect:
a. inhibits the effects of another hormone.
b. lasts only briefly.
c. activates excitatory receptors.
d. produces more long-lasting effects.

d. prodeuces more long-lasting effects

10

10. Which of the following is most likely an example of the organizing effects of sex hormones?
a. Increased heart rate during exercise.
b. Determination of genetic sex.
c. Masculinization of the brain.
d. Nest building.

c. masculinization of the brain.

11

11. One important difference between organizing effects and activating effects of hormones is that activating effects:
a. are shorter-term.
b. take place mostly during an early sensitive period.
c. cause the pituitary gland to release another hormone.
d. control only the peripheral nervous system.

a. are shorter-term

12

12. Müllerian ducts are found in:
a. genetic female fetuses only.
b. genetic male fetuses only.
c. female and male fetuses early in development.
d. female and male fetuses until shortly before birth.

c. female and male fetuses early in development

13

14. What causes the primitive gonads to develop into masculine structures?
a. The X chromosome.
b. The sex region Y (SRY) gene.
c. The sexually dimorphic nucleus.
d. Müllerian inhibiting hormone.

b. The sex region y (SRY) gene

14

15. What develops from the Wolffian ducts?
a. The bladder and urethra.
b. Peripheral nerves controlling the genitals.
c. Female reproductive structures.
d. Male reproductive structures.

d. male reproductive structures

15

16. What determines whether a mammal develops male or female external genitals?
a. The amount of testosterone during prenatal development.
b. The amount of estrogen during prenatal development.
c. The difference (subtraction) between testosterone and estrogen levels in prenatal development.
d. The ratio (division) between testosterone and estrogen levels in prenatal development.

a. The amount of testosterone during prenatal development

16

17. What develops from the Müllerian ducts?
a. The bladder and the urethra.
b. Peripheral nerves controlling the genitals.
c. Female reproductive structures.
d. Male reproductive structures.

c. Female reproductive structures

17

18. The result of all the testosterone-induced changes during sexual differentiation is:
a. The bladder and the urethra.
b. Peripheral nerves controlling the genitals.
c. Female reproductive structures.
d. Male reproductive structures.

d. Male reprooductive structures.

18

19. Genitals for males and females develop from _____; internal reproductive structures develop from _____.
a. a single unisex structure; separate structures
b. separate structures; a single unisex structure
c. a single unisex structure; a single unisex structure
d. separate structures; separate structures

a. a single unisex structure; seprate structures

19

20. What would cause a genetic female mammal to develop an anatomical appearance resembling a male's?
a. A lack of estradiol.
b. Moderate levels of estradiol during an early stage of development.
c. A high level of testosterone during an early stage of development.
d. A high level of testosterone during the late part of puberty.

c. a high level or testosterone during early an early stage of develpment.

20

13. Wolffian ducts are found in:
a. genetic female fetuses only.
b. genetic male fetuses only.
c. female and male fetuses early in development.
d. female and male fetuses until shortly before birth.

c. female and male fetuses early in development.

21

21. The sensitive period for human genital formation is approximately:
a. the first three weeks of gestation.
b. the third and fourth months of gestation.
c. the last trimester of gestation.
d. shortly after birth.

b. the third and fourth months of gestation.

22

If a female rat is injected with testosterone during the last few days before being born or the first few days afterward, at maturity her:
a. pituitary and ovaries will not produce their hormones.
b. ovaries will no longer produce hormones, although her pituitary will.
c. pituitary and ovaries will produce steady levels of hormones instead of cyclic levels of hormones.
d. pituitary and ovaries will produce cyclic levels of hormones instead of steady levels.

c. putuitary and ovaries will produce steady levels of hormones instead of cyclic levels of hormones

23

23. Genetic males with testicular feminization (androgen insensitivity) develop looking and acting female. This condition develops because of a genetic mutation that has which effect?
a. It decreases the production of cortisol.
b. It prevents the production of testosterone.
c. It causes a conversion of testosterone into estradiol within certain cells.
d. It prevents testosterone from having its usual effects.

d. it prevents testosterone from having its usual effects.

24

24. What would cause a male mammal to develop an anatomy that looks like a female's?
a. A deficit of testosterone during puberty.
b. A deficit of testosterone during an early age of development.
c. Exposure to a high level of estradiol during puberty.
d. Exposure to a high level of estradiol during an early stage of development.

b. a deficit of testosterone during an early stage of develoment.

25

25. What would cause a mammal to develop the anatomy of a male, regardless of its chromosomes?
a. Exposure to high levels of testosterone during an early stage of development.
b. Deprivation of estradiol during an early stage of development.
c. Exposure to neither testosterone nor estradiol during an early stage of development.
d. An infusion of testosterone at puberty.

a. exposure to high levels of testosterone durig and early stage of development

26

26. The overall mechanism of early sexual differentiation has been described by saying that nature's "default setting" is to make every mammal:
a. male.
b. female.
c. intermediate between male and female.
d. fully both male and female.

b. female.

27

27. The sexually dimorphic nucleus is located in the:
a. thalamus.
b. Wolffian ducts.
c. anterior hypothalamus.
d. male brain only.

c. anterior hypothalamus

28

28. The difference between males and females in the sexually dimorphic nucleus is that it is:
a. larger in males than in females.
b. larger in females than in males.
c. present in males, absent in females.
d. present in females, absent in males.

a. larger in males than females

29

29. What anatomical difference, other than sex organs, is reliably seen between males and females, even at an early age?
a. Complexity of the cerebral cortex.
b. Size of the pituitary.
c. Organization of the brain stem.
d. Size of parts of the hypothalamus.

d. size of parts of the hypothalamus

30

30. Parts of the hypothalamus can generate a cyclic pattern of hormone release in:
a. females only.
b. males only.
c. females and males.
d. females during childhood and males during adolescence.

a. females only

31

31. If you expose a female to testosterone early in life, it will cause her hypothalamus to:
a. decrease in size.
b. develop a cyclic pattern of hormone release.
c. develop more like a typical male hypothalamus (noncyclic).
d. become inactive.

c. develop more like a typica male hypothalamus (noncyclic)

32

32. According to rodent studies, testosterone exerts a major part of its effect on:
a. alpha-fetoprotein.
b. the sex region Y gene.
c. the thalamus.
d. the hypothalamus.

d. the hypothalamus.

33

33. The process of _____ changes testosteron into estradiol.
a. aromatization
b. transmutation
c. methylation
d. alchemy

a. aromatization

34

34. Before testosterone can masculinize the development of the hypothalamus of an infant mammal, it must first be converted into:
a. estradiol.
b. epinephrine.
c. ACTH.
d. dopamine.

a. estradiol

35

35. Drugs which prevent testosterone from being aromatized to estradiol will:
a. increase the organizing effects of testosterone on sexual development of the brain.
b. block the organizing effects of testosterone on sexual development of the brain.
c. increate heart rate and blood pressure.
d. decrease heart rate and blood pressure.

b. block the organizing effects of testosterone on sexual development of the brain.

36

36. Estradiol normally found in the bloodstream of a female rat fetus neither masculinizes nor feminizes its development because it is:
1 pts
a. chemically converted to testosterone.
b. bound to alpha-fetoprotein.
c. dissolved into the fat supplies of the fetus.
d. not effective on cells even if it did enter them.

b. bound to alpha-fetaprotein.

37

36. Estradiol normally found in the bloodstream of a female rat fetus neither masculinizes nor feminizes its development because it is:
a. chemically converted to testosterone.
b. bound to alpha-fetoprotein.
c. dissolved into the fat supplies of the fetus.
d. not effective on cells even if it did enter them.

b. bound to alpha-fetaprotein.

38

In an injection of testosterone in a castrated male rat:
a. has no effect.
b. elicits typical female behavior.
c. restores male sexual behavior.
d. diminishes male sexual behavior.

c. restores male sexual behavior

39

38. The most effective way to stimulate sexual behavior in a female rodent is to inject her with:
a. prolactin followed by estradiol.
b. progesterone followed by parathyroid hormone.
c. alpha fetoprotein followed by cholecystokinin.
d. a combination of estradiol and progesterone.

d. a combination of estadiol and progesterone.

40

39. One way that estrogen increases sexual responsiveness is by:
a. synchronizing activity between the hypothalamus of the left and right hemispheres.
b. suppressing the release of competing hormones such as testosterone.
c. decreasing the rate of overall body activity.
d. increasing the sensitivity of nerves in the pubic area.

d. increasing the sensitivity to nerves of the pubic area.

41

40. Male sexual behavior depends heavily on neurons in the medical preoptic area of the hypothalamus releasing which substance?
a. Testosterone.
b. Dopamin.
c. Estrogen.
d. Luteinizing hormone.

b. dopamin

42

Damage to the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus in rats would most likely result in:
a. decreased sexual activity.
b. increased sexual activity.
c. a change in partner preference.
d. excessive testosterone levels.

a. decreased sexual activity

43

42. In castrated male rats, the medial preoptic area:
a. does not have as much dopamine as normal rats.
b. has normal levels of dopamine released in the presence of a receptive female.
c. has as much dopamine as normal rats, but the presence of a receptive female does not evoke much release of dopamine.
d. releases the same level of dopamine, but not testosterone, as a normal rat.

c. has as much dopamine as normal rats, but the presence of a receptive emale does ot evoke much release of dopamine.

44

43. Dopamine stimulation of D2 receptor facilitates:
a. arousal.
b. orgasm.
c. erection of the penis.
d. sexually receptive postures in the female.

b. orgasm.

45

44. Whereas dopamine stimulates sexual activity, the neurotransmitter _____ inhibits it, in part by blocking dopamine release.
a. testosterone
b. estrogen
c. serotonin
d. estradiol

c. seratonin

46

45. Female rats find sex reinforcing only if they:
a. are submissive.
b. get to decide when it occurs.
c. let the male take the lead.
d. are placed in a controlled setting.

b. get to decide when it occurs.

47

By blocking dopamine release, some antidepressant drugs that increase serotonin levels also:
a. increase sexual activity.
b. decrease sexual activity.
c. cause permanent organizational defects.
d. shrink the SDN.

b. decrease sexual activity.

48

Estrogens directly stimulate parts of the prefrontal cortex that are important for:
a. sexual behavior.
b. working memory.
c. blood circulation.
d. critical thinking.

b. working memory

49

What hormone more than triples in concentration in the blood of human males during orgasm, and has been tentatively linked to sexual pleasure?
a. Insulin.
b. Aldosterone.
c. Melatonin.
d. Oxytocin.

d. oxytocin

50

49. Sildenafil (Viagra) works by:
a. increasing sensitivity to females pheromones.
b. increasing the release of nitric oxide in the hypothalamus and penis.
c. decreasing dopamine release in the hypothalamus.
d. blocking pain receptors in the spinal cord.

b. increasing the release of nitric oxide in the hypothalamus and penis

51

50. A means of controlling sex offenders has involved reducing:
a. testosterone levels.
b. estrogen levels.
c. prolactin.
d. the alpha-fetoprotein level in their blood.

a. testosterone levels

52

When women think about sex or anticipate having sex, their _____ levels increase temporarily.
a. estradiol
b. estrogen
c. testosterone
d. oxytocin

c. testosterone

53

52. A woman's hypothalamus and pituitary interact with the _____ to produce the menstrual cycle.
a. pineal gland
b. ovaries
c. thyroid
d. adrenal glands

b. ovaries

54

53. In women, which hormone stimulates the growth of a follicle in the ovary?
a. FSH.
b. ACTH.
c. TSH.
d. Prolactin.

a. FSH

55

54. Follicle-stimulating hormone is released by the:
a. pineal gland.
b. anterior pituitary.
c. thyroid.
d. ovum.

b. anterior pituitary

56

55. Toward the middle of the menstrual cycle, the follicle produces increasing amounts of:
1 pts
a. TSH.
b. ACTH.
c. testosterone.
d. estradiol.

d. estradiol.

57

56. In the middle of the menstrual cycle, an increased release of estradiol causes a(n):
a. decrease in the release of FSH.
b. decrease in the release of LH.
c. sudden urge in the release of luteinizing hormone.
d. increase in the release of testosterone.

c. sudden urge in the release of luteinizing hormone.

58

The hormones of LH, FSH, and estradiol reach a peak.
a. in the first month of pregnancy.
b. at the start of the menstrual period.
c. at the end of the menstrual period.
d. around the time of ovulation.

d. around the time of ovulation

59

58. Pregnant women often experience nausea because of the heightened activity of the _____ receptor.
a. serotonin 3
b. progesterone
c. estradiol
d. dopamine 2

a. seratoin 3

60

59. The most widely used and most effective birth control is one that contains which hormone(s)?
a. Luteinizing hormone.
b. Androgen, but not estrogen.
c. Both estrogen and androgen.
d. Both estrogen and progesterone.

d. both estroen and progesterone.

61

60. Birth control pills prevent pregnancy by:
a. increasing the release of estrogen.
b. increasing the release of FSH.
c. interfering the feedback cycle between the ovaries and the pituitary.
d. inactivating both ovaries.

c. interfering the feedback cycle between the ovaries and the pituitary.

62

61. At what point in the menstrual cycle, if any, are women who are not on birth-control pills most likely to initiate sexual activity?
1 pts
a. At any point in the menstrual cycle.
b. Just after the end of menstruation.
c. About midway between two menstrual periods.
d. Just before the next menstrual period.

c. about midway between two mentrua periods.

63

61. At what point in the menstrual cycle, if any, are women who are not on birth-control pills most likely to initiate sexual activity?
a. At any point in the menstrual cycle.
b. Just after the end of menstruation.
c. About midway between two menstrual periods.
d. Just before the next menstrual period.

c. about midway between two mentrua periods.

64

62. Many female mammals become very attentive after delivering their babies largely because of a sudden:
a. drop in testosterone levels.
b. surge in prolactin and oxytocin.
c. decrease of prolactin and increase of oxytocin.
d. increase of prolactin and decrease of oxytocin.

b. surge in prolactin and oxytocin.

65

63. A male meadow vole can be genetically altered to remain with a female he mated with by increasing _____ levels.
a. vasopressin
b. renin
c. testosterone
d. estradiol

a. vaspressin

66

64. The first few days of rat prenatal care are to _____ as later days are to _____.
a. experience; hormones
b. hormones; experience
c. females; males
d. males; females

b. hormones; experience

67

65. Research suggests that _____ levels correlate with several aspects of motherly attention to an infant.
a. vasopressin
b. progesterone
c. oxytocin
d. estradiol

c. oxytocin